Textbook Notes (363,566)
Canada (158,433)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB10H3 (611)
Sarah (10)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Notes.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 8: Sex Differences, Gender-Role Development, and Sexuality  Gender typing: the process by which children acquire not only a gender identity but also the motives, values, and behaviours considered appropriate in their culture for members of their biological sex. Categorizing Males and Females: Gender-Role Standards  Gender-role standard: behaviour, value, or motive that members of a society consider more typical or appropriate for members of one sex.  Expressive role: a social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one should be cooperative, kind, nurturant and sensitive to the needs of others.  Instrumental role: a social prescription, usually directed toward males, that one should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive, and goal- oriented. Some Facts and Fictions About Sex Differences Adult Psychological Differences between the Sexes  Verbal ability: girls display greater verbal abilities than boys on many measures.  Visual/spatial abilities: the ability to draw inferences about or to otherwise mentally manipulate pictorial information. Boys outperform girls on some tests.  Mathematical reasoning: boys show a small but consistent advantage over girls on tests of arithmetic reasoning.  Aggression: boys are more physically aggressive than girls. Girls are more likely than boys to display covert forms of hostility toward others by snubbing or ignoring them.  Activity level: boys are more physically active than girls.  Fear, timidity, and risk-taking: girls appear to be more fearful or timid in uncertain situations than boys are.  Developmental vulnerability: boys are more physically vulnerable than girls to prenatal and perinatal hazards and to the effects of disease.  Emotional expressivity/sensitivity: boys are more likely than girls to display one emotion—anger—whereas girls more frequently display most other emotions.  Compliance: girls are more compliant than boys to the requests and demands of parents, teachers, and other authority figures.  Self-esteem: boys show a small edge over girls in global self-esteem. Cultural Myths  The persistence of unfounded or inaccurate gender-role stereotypes has important consequences for both boys and girls. Do Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability (and Vocational Opportunity)?  Self-fulfilling prophecy: one that promotes sex differences in cognitive performance and steers boys and girls along different career paths. Home Influences  Parents expect their sons to outperform their daughters in math.  Parents attribute their sons’ successes in math to ability but credit their daughters’ successes to hard work.  Children begin to internalize their parents’ views, so that boys feel relatively self-confident, whereas girls are somewhat more inclined to underestimate both their general academic abilities.  Girls become less interested in math, value it less, are less likely to take elective math courses, and become less inclined than boys to pursue career possibilities that involve math after high school. Scholastic Influences  There is reason to suspect that many of the constraining stereotypes about women’s competencies will eventually crumble as women achieve, in ever- increasing numbers, in politics, professional occupations, the science, skilled trades, and virtually all other walks of life. Developmental Trends in Gender Typing  Gender identity: one’s awareness of one’s gender and its implications. Development of the Gender Concept  The first step in the development of a gender identity is to discriminate males from females and to place oneself into one of these categories.  Children normally begin to understand that sex is an unchanging attribute between the ages of 5 and 7. Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes  Toddlers begin to acquire gender-role stereotypes at about the same time that they become aware of their basic identities as boys or girls.  Just because grade-school children say that boys and girls can legitimately pursue cross-sex interests and activities does not necessarily imply that they approve of those who do.  There is a greater pressure placed on boys to conform to gender roles. Cultural Influences  Western individualistic societies are becoming more flexible in their thinking about many violations of gender stereotypes; the same pattern is not in collectivist societies. Adolescent Thinking about Gender Stereotypes  Gender intensification: a magnification of sex differences that is associated with increased pressure to conform to gender roles as one reaches puberty. Development of Gender-Typed Behaviour  Toddlers will often refuse to play with cross-sex toys, even when there are no other objects available for them to play with. Gender Segregation  Gender segregation: children’s tendency to associate with same-sex playmates and to think of the other sex as an out-group.  Children who hold the more stereotyped views of the sexes are the ones most likely to maintain gender segregation in their own play activities and to make few if any opposite-sex friends. Sex Differences in Gender-Typed Behaviour  Girls are more drawn to male activities and the masculine role during childhood.  Once girls reach puberty and their bodies assume a more womanly appearance, girls often feel the need to become more feminine if they hope to be attractive to members of the other sex. Subcultural Variations in Gender Typing  Although not extensive, research on social-class and ethnic variations in gender typing reveals that (1) middle-class adolescents (but not children) hold more flexible gender-role attitudes than their low-SES peers and (2) African-American children hold less stereotyped views of women than European-American children do. Theories of Gender Typing and Gender-Role Development Evolutionary Theory  Evolutionary psychologists contend that men and women faced different evolutionary pressures over the course of human history and that natural selection process conspired to create fundamental differences among males and females that determined gender divisions of labor.  According to evolutionary theorists, males and females may be psychologically similar in many ways but should differ in any domain in which they have faced different adaptive problems throughout evolutionary history. Criticisms of the Evolutionary Approach  Social-roles hypothesis: the notion that psychological differences between the sexes and other gender-role stereotypes are created and maintained by differences in socially assigned roles that men and women play (rather than attributable to biologically evolved dispositions). Money and Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory Overview of Sexual Differentiation and Gender-Role Development  The first critical event occurs at conception as the child inherits either an X or Y chromosome from the father.  The testes of the male embryo secrete two hormones—testosterone, which stimulates the development of a male internal reproductive system, and mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), which inhibits the development of female organs.  Testicular feminization syndrome (TFS): a genetic anomaly in which a male fetus is insensitive to the effects of male sex hormones and will develop female-like external genitalia. Evidence for Biological Influences on Gender-Role Development Genetic Influences  Genetic factors may contribute to some sex differences in personality, cognitive abilities, and social behaviour.  X-linked recessive traits: an attribute determined by recessive gene that appears only on X chromosomes; because the gene determining these characteristics is recessive (that is, dominated by other genes that might appear at the same location on X chromosomes), such characteristics are more common among males, who have only one X chromosome; also called sex-linked trait.  Timing of puberty: the finding that people who reach puberty late perform better on visual/spatial tasks than those who mature early.  Genes determine our biological sex and clearly have some influence on the outcome of gender typing; it appears that much of the variability in people’s gender-typed behaviours and their masculine and feminine
More Less

Related notes for PSYB10H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.