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Chapter 5

PSYB10 - Chapter #5 Notes.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter #5 Notes: Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination: The Nature of the Problem: Persistence and Change: Defining Our Terms:  Racism – prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s background; racism exists at several levels o Individual, institutional, cultural levels  Another way to define racism is as institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another  Sexism – prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender, or as institutional and cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender (typically men) over another (typically women)  Stereotypes – as beliefs or associations that link whole groups of people with certain traits or characteristics  Prejudice – consists of negative feelings about others because of their connection to a social group  Discrimination – behaviours – specifically negative behaviours directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group  Group – two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristics: o direct interactions with each other over a period of time o joint membership in a social category based on sex, race or other attributes o shared, common fate, identity or set of goals o ingroups – groups we relate to as our own o outgroups – groups other than our own Racism: Current Forms and Challenges:  Blatant racism is becoming increasing less acceptable  Discrimination may be on the rise though in Western Europe Modern Racism:  Modern racism – a subtle form of prejudice that surfaces in direct ways whenever it is safe, socially acceptable or easy to rationalize; far more subtle Implicit Racism:  Racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally  Can skew judgement without inducing the guilt that more obvious, explicit forms of racism would trigger  Most well-known measure to test this is the Implicit Association Test (IAT) o Measures the extent to which two concepts are associated  Individual’s degree of implicit racism sometimes predicts difference in their perceptions of and reactions to others as a function of race Interracial Perceptions:  Divides b/w racial and ethnic groups tend to be more vast and pay promote stronger feelings of hostility, fear and distrust than the divides based on other social categories o Strengthened by: relative lack of contact b/w people of diff racial/ethnic groups o The stigma of being perceived as racist is especially troubling for most people  Perceiving a member of a racial outgroup may trigger different more emotional reactions that perceiving an ingroup member o fMRI detected responses in the amygdala activation for outgroup members, also greater activation for blacks than whites faces o in addition greater activation was associated with higher levels of implicit prejudice Interracial Interactions:  increased cardiovascular reactions associated with feelings of threat  individuals engaging in intergroup interactions often activate metastereotypes or thoughts about the outgroup’s stereotypes about them and worry about being seen as consistent with these stereotypes  People try to avoid interracial interaction for fear of appearing racist or being treated in a racist way Sexism: Ambivalence and Double Standards:  Old-fashioned blatant displays of sexism are less socially accepted today than in the past  Gender stereotypes are distinct from virtually all other stereotypes in that they are prespective rather than merely descriptive  Sexism involves more ambivalence between positive and negative feelings and beliefs than other forms of prejudice and discrimination Ambivalent Sexism:  Stereotypes of women tend to be more positive than stereotypes of men  However positive traits associated with women are less valued in important domains than those with men  Ambivalent sexism: Peter Glick an Susan Fiske’s consists of 2 elements: o Hostile sexism – negative, resentful feelings about women’s abilities, value and ability to challenge men’s power o Benevolent sexism – affectionate, chivalrous feelings founded on the potentially patronizing belief that women need and deserve protection (women feel more favourably towards men who exhibit this) o Two forms of sexism are + correlated o Found strong support for prevalent ambivalent sexism around the world Sex Discrimination: Double Standards and Pervasive Stereotypes:  People often devalue the performance of women who take on tasks usually reserved for men and attribute their achievements to luck rather than ability Causes of the Problem: Intergroup and Motivational Factors:  No one is immune from stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination Fundamental Motives between Groups:  Fundamental tenet of social psychology is the social nature of the human animal  Need to affiliate with relatively small groups of similar others; these affiliations fill the more basic motive of self-protection  Being in a dark environment would trigger a person’s self-protective motive more than being in a bright one  Optimal distinctiveness theory – people try to balance the desire to belong and affiliate with others and the desire to be distinct and differentiated from others o May drive people to identify with relatively small ingroups Robbers Cave: A Field Study in Intergroup Conflict:  Superordinate goals – mutual goals that could be achieved only through cooperation between the groups  Example – 11 year old boys at camp in 2 separate teams  rivals  similar goals  cooperation Realistic Conflict Theory:  The view that direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility o “realistic competition” for resources may be imagined in the mind of the ind not involved in any conflict o Second, people may become resentful of other groups, not because of their conviction that their own security or resources are threatened by these groups, but because of their sense of relative deprivation – belief that they far poorly compared with others Social Identity Theory:  Minimal groups – categorized on the basis of trivial, minimally important similarities  Ingroup favouritism – pattern of discrimination; can be triggered just by the language we use (subtle) o We, us and ours triggered positive emotions o They, them and theirs triggered negative emotions  Social identity theory – proposed by Tajfel and Turned – each of us strives to enhance our self- esteem which has 2 components: o Personal identity o Various collective or social identities that are based on the groups to which we belong o We derive pride from our connections with others even if we don’t receive any direct benefits from these others Basic Predictions:  2 basic predictions from social identity theory: o Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favourism o Expressions of ingroup favouritism enhance one’s self-esteem *Insert figure 5.5  A blow to one’s self-image provokes prejudice and the expression of prejudice helps to restore self-image Situational and Individual Differences:  Greater ingorup identification linked with stronger social identity effects Culture and Social Identity:  Cultural differences can influence social identity processes  Collectivists are more likely that individualists to value their connectedness and interdependence with the people and groups around them, and their personal identities are tired closely with their social identities  People from collectivist cultures less likely that people from individualist cultures to show biases favouring their ingroups in order to boost their self-esteem Motives Concerning Intergroup Dominance and Status:  Social dominance orientation – a desire to see one’s ingroups as dominant over other groups and a willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups  Social dominance orientations promote self-interest  System justification: John Jost – processes that endorse and legitimize existing social arrangements o Protect the status quo Causes of the Problem: Cognitive and Cultural Factors:  How stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination result from the basic ways that people learn information available to their culture and process information about other people Social Categorization:  People sort each other into groups of the basis of common attributes (gender, race, etc.)  Children learn about stereotypes very young  Jeffrey Sherman: people tend to learn features about majority groups earlier than features about minority groups  More genetic variation within races than between them Ingroups Versus Outgroups:  We exaggerate the difference between our ingroup and other outgroups  Outgroup homogeneity effect – perceivers assume that there is a greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of one’s own group o We often don’t see diff in outgroups because we have little personal contact with them o People do not encounter a representative sample of outgroup members o Just by categorizing people as outgroups or ingroups our brain perceives them differently o Ingroup = more activity in orbitofrontal cortex Dehumanizing Outgroups:  Perceivers sometimes process outgroups more like objects than fellow human beings  fMRI activation in medial prefrontal cortex when people saw faces from a variety of groups  regions of brain associated with feelings of disgust were more likely to be activated for outgroups  leading to treating them poorly  we see outgroups as less than fully human How Stereotypes Survive the Self-Perpetuate:  social categorization helps give rise to stereotypes  they often cause us to overlook the diversity within categories and form mistaken impression of specific individuals Illusory Correlations:  a tendency for people to overestimate the link between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated  result from 2
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