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Chapter 2

PSYB10 Chapter 2 Methodology

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Chapter 2 Methodology Experimental method (hypothetico-deductive method) - To determine causal relationships - By changing only one aspect of the situation, they can test whether this aspect is the cause of the behaviour in question - The method in which researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable 1. Examine past knowledge or research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory - Independent variable (IV) o The variable that is changed or varied to see if it has an effect on the DV - Dependent variable (DV) o The variable that is measured to see if it is influenced by the IV - Internal validity o Keeping everything the same in different conditions except the IV o Making sure that only the IV can affect the DV o Accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions o Probability level (p-value)  A number that tells researchers how likely it is that the results occurred by chance and not because of the IV  p < 0.05 is considered significant that the results might be attributed to chance factors and not the IV - External validity o The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other real-life situations and other people in general o Generalizability across situations  Mundane realism  The extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life situations  Difficult to achieve realism in a laboratory setting  Psychological realism  The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are to similar psychological processes that occur in everyday life  People don’t always know what they will do until it happens  Cannot depend on people’s predictions about what they would do in a hypothetical situation  Cover story  A description of the purpose of a study given to participants that is different from its true purpose o Used to maintain psychological realism o Generalizability across people  Ensure that participants are randomly selected  Expensive to select random samples  Assume that psychologically processes are universally shared o Replication  Repeating a study with different subject populations, in different settings or by using different methods o Meta analysis  A statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an IV is reliable Research designs - Correlational designs o Ke
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