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Chapter 01

Chapter 01 - PSYB32.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 1 PSYB32 May 6, 2013 Psychopathology: Field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behavior, thoughts and feelings What is abnormal behavior?  Abnormal behavior includes characteristics such as: statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness Statistical infrequency  “Normal curve” (bell-curve shaped) places the majority of people in the middle as far as any particular characteristic  Statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation Violation of Norms  Consider whether the behavior violates social norms of threatens or makes anxious those observing it  Verbal and physical attacks  Makes abnormality a relative concept  Cultural diversity can affect how people view social norms Personal Distress  Personal suffering  Behavior that is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it Disability of Dysfunction  Impairment in some important area of those (i.e. work or personal relationships) because of an abnormality  Component of abnormal behavior  Substance-use disorders are also defined in part by the social/occupational disability (i.e. poor work performance, serious arguments with one‟s spouse) created by substance and addiction  A phobia can produce both distress and disability  Disability applies to some, but not all disorders Unexpectedness  Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors  I.e. An anxiety disorder is diagnosed when the anxiety is unexpected and out of proportion to the situation, as when a person who is well off worries constantly about his/her financial situation The Mental Health Professors Clinicians: various professionals authorized to provide psychological services, takes different forms Clinical psychologists: typically requires a Ph.D. or Psy.D degree, which entails 4 to 7 years of graduate study  In Canada, a psychologist may either have a doctoral or a master‟s degree Psychotherapy: A primarily verbal meaning of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behavior to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction Psychiatrist: holds an MD degree and has had post graduate training, called a residency, he/she has received supervision in the practice of diagnosis and psychotherapy  Psychiatrists can also continue functioning as physicians-giving physical examinations, diagnosing medical problems, and the like Psychoactive drugs: chemical compounds that can influence how people feel and think Psychoanalyst: has received specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute  Program usually involves several years of clinical training as well as the in-depth psychoanalyst of the trainee  Can take up to 10 years of graduate work to become a psychoanalyst Social worker: obtains a “master of social work” degree  Programs for counseling psychologists are somewhere similar to graduate training in clinical psychology  Less emphasis on research Psychiatric nurse: specializes in the mental health field Early Demonology  Demonology  Doctrine that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person and control his/her mind and body  Exorcism  Casting of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture  Took the form of elaborate rites of prayer, noisemaking, forcing the afflicted to drink terrible-tasting brews, and on occasion more extreme measures, such as flogging and starvation, to render the body uninhabitable to devils  Trepanning (of skulls)  The making of a surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument by Stone Age or Neolithic cave dwellers was quite widespread  Way of treating conditions such as epilepsy, headaches, and psychological disorders attributed to demons within the cranium Somatogenesis: The notion that something wrong with the soma, or physical body, disturbs thought and action Psychogenesis: The belief that a disturbance has 3 psychological origins Hippocrates classified mental disorders into 3 categories: mania, melancholia, and phrenitis (or brain fever)  Treatments Hippocrates suggested were quite different from exorcistic tortures  For melancholia he prescribed tranquility, sobriety, care in choosing food and drink, and abstinence from sexual activity (assumed to have a healthful effect on the brain and the body, believed in natural rather than supernatural causes, he depended on his own keen observations and made a valuable contribution as a physician)  Hippocrates physiology was rather crude, however, for he conceived of normal brain functioning, and therefore of mental health, as dependent on a delicate balance among hour humours, or fluids, of the body, namely, blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm (an imbalance produce disorders)  Hippocrates humoral physiology did not withstand later scientific scrutiny The Dark Ages and Demonology  Christian monasteries, through their missionary and educational work, replaced physicians as healers and as authorities of mental disorders Development of Asylums  Leprosariums (institutions where people with leprosy were isolated, which was believed during the time to be caused due to committing a sin, or being sexually promiscuous) were converted to asylums: refuges, established for the confinement and care of the mentally ill Bethlehem and Other Early Asylums  Bethlehem was a hospital built for the confinement of the mentally ill  The conditions were deplorable  Over the years the word bedlam: a contraction and popular name for the hospital became a descriptive term for a place or scene of wild uproar and confusion. It became a destination place for viewing the violent patients and their antics as many found it entertaining Benjamin Rush:  The father of American psychiatry  Believed that an excess of blood in the brain caused mental disorders. Consequently, his favored treatment was to draw great quantities of blood. He further believed that being fri
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