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Canada (161,890)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)


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Mark Schmuckler

Psyb20-ch 11 Socialization : process, ensuring that their child’s standard of behavior, attitudes, skills and motives conform as closely as possible to those regarded as desirable and appropriate to her role in society The family system -parents influence and direct their children, but their children also influence them and play an active role in their own socialization -families are influenced by the larger physical, cultural , social and historical settings and events around them -families are not static they change over time The ecological systems perspective -contexts in which children are embedded play an important role in the developmental trajectories -system is a complex and organized it has an ongoing identity of its own, it maintains a certain stability over time and it must be capable of morphogenesis which is adapting to the changes both within and outside the sytem. It must demonstrate equifinality as time goes by developing many similarities with other systems like it but expressing the similarities in diff ways -interdependency, each fam member and family subsystems influences and is influenced by each other member and subsystem -families attain homeostasis where they become resistant to forced that might alter the balance -adaptability is the central criterion of a well functioning family -resistance to change can prevent parents or other fam members from recognizing problem and cause members to blame all fam difficulties on one child who becomes the scapegoat for everyone else -families have boundaries, which vary in how permeable or vunerable they are outside influences -well functioning family allows member to maintain satisfying relationships both within and outside the family itself -families whose boundaries are too permeable can be vulnerable to disruptions by external forces The marital system -the nature of the partners relationship with one another has impact on the children -satisfactory to both partners facilitates effective parenting, good sibling relations and healthy development of all family;s children how does marital relationship affect children -partners offer emotional and physical support, they will provide the same for their children -shared parenting allows for better relationships with children -co-operate in caring for their children also help each other shoulder some of the special burdens new parents experience, help each other help the child -conflict between parents has been found to reflect insecure attachments of children to both parents -fathers who had and angry and withdrawn style of dealing with disputes had children who were more likely to be depressed than other children -indirectly effects: when marriage difficulties cause parents to change their child rearing practices -directly: children are witness to arguments -handle disputes constructively, they show children the right way, and reduce harm to child -they can model healthy conflict negotiation -couples themselves tend to be more negative in disputes in the presence of child -boys are much more susceptible to the negative effects than girls, parents are less likely to argue in front of girls more protecting of daughters than sons Impact of a new baby on the martial system -presence and behavior of a child influences the marital relationship -marital satisfaction declines more markedly in woman than in men after birth first child -gradually fathers become more aware of the restrictions a baby impose on their lives -kids who are temperamentally difficult or handicapped n some way may often contribute to heightened family stress -the birth of a child rarely destroys a good marriage The parent-child system -individual children may develop very differently within the same family situation How parents socialize children -socialiazation begins at birth becomes more conscious and systematic as he child achieves greater mobility and begins to use formal language -teaching their children social rules and roles, parents rely on several learning principles -they can use reinforcement where they explain acceptable standards then praise of discipline according to if the child behaves appropriately or not -they may also teach by modeling behaviors they want children to adopt, this could occur by chance however or the modeled behavior may not always be what they want to produce -parents also manage aspects of their children’s environment that will influence their social development -they choose neighborhoods and home, they may decorate the childs room with female or men colors Dimensions of prenatal behavior -emotionality: warm responsive parents or rejecting and unresponsive -control: very demanding of their children, restricting their behavior or they may be permissive and undemanding pretty much allowing the child to do as they wish Emotionality -warm parent child is likely to want to maintain the parent’s approval and be distressed by loosing parents love -cool and rejecting, child has nothing to lose -phsycial punishment is more effective in the hand s of warm parents -warmth and nurturance are likely to be associated with prenatal responsiveness to the child’s needs -loving parents make children feel good about themselves, they build sense of self and their self esteem -levels of tension and anxiety are that are likely ot be associated with hostile parents and frequent physical punishment may make it very difficult for the child to learn the social rules that the parent is attempting to teach Control -socialization does involve mutual influence between parents and children the parents usually have more control in childs interactions -behavioral control: setting reasonable rules and parental use of suggestion, reasoning and possible alternative courses of actions as well as monitoring of childrens activities -children are more likely to cooperate and adopt and internalize their parents standards -psychological control involves the use of emotion-directed tactics such as guilt or shame induction withdrawal of love and affection or ignoring or discounting a child’s feelings, this leads to lower self estem and possibly depression and in the long run the child might adopt these types of power assertive techniques when she becomes a parent -as children grow older they resist being controlled and manipulated by others -child gains cognitive competence become more autonomous, parents rely on reasoning and the child engages more and more in active bargaining -parents effective socialization of the child is due to the child’s interpretation of the methods of the parent-child relationship and the goals of the parent -parents often employ techniques other than power assertion and reasoning to discipline children Parenting sytle -see table 11-1 p.435 for different styles -infants lack prenatal involvement is associated with disruptions in attachment -preschool children poor monitoring combined with coercive discipline predicted conduct problems -older children it is associated with impulsivity, aggression, non compliance, moodiness and low self esteem -adolescence, they are more likely to spend time on the streets with troublesome peers Challenges to the parenting styles approach -we need to identitify more clearly the components of each style that contribute to its relative effectiveness or ineffectiveness in respect to the child’s development -giving greater attention to how much the child’s temperament and behavior influence the parent’s style -neighborhoods make a difference In children dev, they determine the kinds of socialization strategies parents adopt -parental social integration into the neighborhoods may also be an important predictor of more adequate parenting practices -there are also reports of differences cross-cuturally, ex: found no links between authoritarian parenting and negative feelings about the child or lack of warmth in themiddle eastern families in Canada -authoritarian parenting was associated with higher child self esteem for middle eastern but not anglo children -it is important to consider contextual and cultural issues in developing new concepts of parenting styles The co-parenting system -coparenting: in which spouses coordinate their child rearing practices with one another ideally working as a team -cooperation, cohesion and child centeredness, there may be high degree of family harmony -parents who are hostile may actively compete against one another, this leads to an inbalance between the amounts of involvement of each parent -gatekeeping where one parent limits or controls the other parent’s level of participation -hostile competitive coparenting during infancy was related to aggression in children The sibling system -children probably spend more time in direct interaction with their siblings than with their parents or other significant people in their lives How are siblings affected by birth order -whether she is the first born or later born child she can be affected depending on family interactions -first born is unique an reigns supreme in the love and attention of her parents until she is displaced by the birth of a new baby with whom she now must share her parents affection -first born generally more adult oriented, helpful, they have a lot of skills and are more to excel in different situations -second born sons support innovative theories and first born support the status quo -first and last borns were more likely than middle borns to use kinship to describe themselves -second born children had more positive interaction with thei mothers than first born -downside to being born first, children tending to be more fearful and anxious than their other siblings experience more guilt, more difficulty copin with stressful situations -the only child has advantages over other children, they become better well adjusted adults, more open they go out and seek friends and do not have to adapt to displacement and competition with siblings -solo children seem to make more positive adjustments than children who are involved in sibling rivalry Birth order, parent-chil and sib-sib interactions -if a mother continues to be responsive to the needs of the older child, and helps him to understand the feelings of the younger child,intense siblings rivalry are unlikely to occur -father becomes increasingly involved with his first born child, this can count to counter the child’s feelings of displacement and jealousy -differential reaction by siblings to parental treatment form thenon shared environmental experiences that help us understand how siblings grow up to be quite different from each other -only when siblings did not understand or tolerate parental differential treatment did they view their relationships with their siblings negatively -diff culture siblings serve as diff roles to new sibling ex: African American and latino older siblings especially females often are caregivers -the eldest child is dominant and more competent and can either bully or help and teach younger offspring -so it is not surprising that older children tend to show both more antagonistic behavior like bullyin and nurturant behavior to their younger siblings -eldest children focus on parents as their main sources of social learning whereas younger children use both parents and older siblings as models and teachers -siblings relationships change with age -siblings can often communicate more openly with each other than with peers or parents The family unit as an agent of children’s socialization: family stories and rituals -families as units changes across development and develop distinctive styles of responding to events and boundaries all of which provide differing socialization contexts for the developing child -family stories, family members may transmit family of origin experiences across generations shaping contemporary interaction between family members -learn through fam stories -mothers who told stories of either achievement or rejection were less engaged and when they interacted with their children, more intrusive and directive -children who came from families who were able to preserve family rituals such as dinner and holiday routines were less likely to become alcoholics as adults and that adolescents from families who attach more meaning to their rituals tend to have higher self esteem than other children -just as each ind develops a unique personality so do families develop ways of interacting that give them a unique signature or identity Social class, ethnicity and socialization Poverty and powerlessness -other related and pervasive features of the lives of the lower and middle classes may be more directly relevant to the socialization process such as dangerous neighborhood Economic hardship -the poor have less influence over the society in which they live and so they are more likely to be treated bad by different social organizations ex: such as poorer public services -this causes them to experience considerable psychological distress, feel helpless, insecure and controlled by external forces , they are unable to support and nurture their children adequately -suffer of economic stress of any kinds are more likely than non stressed fams to experience depression and marital conflict and to be harsh with their children -effects of economic stress on family functions have been documented in families of many ethnic deviations -fams and friends render each other mutual assistance in fulfilling emergency needs in times of unemployment, childbirth, illness and death as well as in the day to day needs of family life Impact of poverty -poor children face more risks to physical health -poverty is not helpful for children;s achievement -being poor in early childhood is much more detrimental than being poor in middle childhood or adolescence -increasing income later in childhood was less effective in producing a change -affects: quality of home environment differs in poor and non poor families, children in poor homes have fewer physical resources -they receive fewer learning opportunities and less cognitive stimulation -the quality of care young children receive outside the home also matters, and poor children are often placed in poorer quality child care settings -also it is linked with parent-child conflict which leads to lower grades and impairs emotional and social development -poor families often live in high risk neighborhoods with disorganization such as more crimes -child in poor enviro suffer from risks less resources more crimes -poor parents suffer more physical and emotional problems that impair their parenting abilities, children suffer -good news are the effects of poverty are sometimes reversible -reforms increased work opportunities and provided the kinds of financial support that led to a net gain in income for working families children achieved -increase work decrease welfare can cause for success in child development Cultural patterns in child rearing -social class differences in family relation are more marked than variations based on race or ethnicity -relections of interdependence in the role played by the extended family -norht American parents from Chinese and other asian American subcultures who also emphasize family cooperation and obligation, encouraging self sufficiency and achievement even more than do European north American parents -different parenting styles are found among many subcultural groups but the effects of these styles seems to vary among some groups -relationships specifically between authoritative parenting and school performance was less consistent for African and asian north American adolescents than for European and Hispanic adolescent -european more likely to benefit from authoritative parents than were African or asian north American adolescents T
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