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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

5 Pages

Course Code
Chandan Narayan

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Cognition- the mental activity through which human beings acquire and process knowledge. Z Z- first he noticed that children of same age tended to get same answers wrong. Second, he observed that errors of children of a particular age differed in systematic ways from those of older or younger children. He relied on two methods: interviews and observations. ZZ: the child actively seeks knowledge, also known as the constructivist view- the idea that children actively create their understanding of the world as they encounter new info and have new experiences. Opposite of behaviorism where children passively wait for info (or stimuli). ZZ Z Z increasingly more complex cognitive structures- an organized group of interrelated memories, thoughts, and strategies that the child uses in try to understand a situation. A lot of his theory was based on the concept of schemaschemas- an organized unit of knowledge that the child uses to try to understand a situation; a schema forms the basis for organizing actions to respond to the environment. Organization- combining simple mental structures into more complex systems. Operations- schemas based on internal mental activities that develops as you get older instead of based on overt physical activities like in young children. Adaptation- Z Z Z ZZZ Z Assimilation- molding a new experience to fit an existing way of responding to the environment. (applying existing schemes to the new experience.) Accomodation- modifying an existing way of responding to the environment to fit the characteristics of a new experience. Stages of Cognitive Development- comprehensive, qualitative changes over time in the way a child thinks. Based on experience so not every one reaches each stage at the same age, but you have to go through each stage one by one, no skipping. Sensorimotor stage (0-2yrs)- Z Z Z which children move from purely reflexive behaviour to the beginning of symbolic thought and goal-directed behaviours. There are 6 substages in this stage, one important substage involves learning about objects and object permanence- the notion that entities external to the child, such as objects and people, continue to Z Z Z Zg or interacting with them or out of sight. May be a prerequisite for self-recognition. Substage 1: basic reflex activity (0-1month)- ZZZZ Z proficiency in the use of innate reflexes. Involuntary behaviors are replaced by behaviors that are similar in form but are controlled voluntarily. Object concept- look only at object directly in front. www.notesolution.com
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