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Canada (158,372)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB57H3 (369)
Chapter 5

chapter 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 5 MEMEORY STRUCTURES • Encoding: acquires info, occurs when info is first translated into a form that other cognitive processes can use. It’s held in storage in one from or another for later retrieval. Retrieval: the calling to mind of previously stored info Forgetting: when we cannot retrieve info • Clive Wearing’s example Amnesia, spared memory abilities TYPES OF MEMORY • Plato Memory is a wax tablet on which impressions are made. • Modal model of memory (1960s and 1970s) Info is received, processed, and stored differently for each kind of memory, according to the length of time info is stored. Sensory memory: unattended info Short-term memory (STM): attended info, 20 or 30 sec Long-term memory (LTM) SENSORY MEMORY • Initial brief storage of sensory info • Separate sensory memories exist for each sensory modality: Visual (icon)/auditory (echo)/olfactory/gustatory/ tactile sensory memory • The Icon www.notesolution.com The “after-image” of the lightning, or your name, is a mental experience believed to persist in sensory memory. Experiment (George Sperling): Recall displayed letters that were presented for only 50 milliseconds. Expanding the display time didn’t improve performance. Even as Ps sere recalling, the info was fading from wherever it was being stored. ⇒Info lasts only briefly in visual memory system (the icon). Sperling: Partial-report technique Visual store could hold abt 9 items, but held only briefly, and reduced when the tone cue was delayed. Call this brief visual memory→the icon Masking: the icon can be erased by other stimuli presented immediately after the icon. Ps could be cued to give partial reports in many ways: color, brightness etc. Info available in the icon is only visual—not auditory or related to type of stimulus. • The Echo “Four-eared” listening task Condition 1: Ps were asked to report all letters they had heard Condition 2: Four lights cued the Ps to report only letters from one particular channel. →Ps giving partial reports could report proportionately more letters. ⇒The echo stores info only briefly. Echoic memory has a larger capacity than iconic memory www.notesolution.com Echoes last longer than icons (20 sec) e.g. Someone asks you a question while you are watching TV, can still answer it even after the question has been spoken. “Suffix effect” Suffix—recall cue, functions as an auditory “mask” of sorts. The more auditory similarity there is b/w the suffix and the items, the greater the suffix effect. • Properties of sensory memory 1) Sensory memories are modality specific The visual sensory memory contains visual info; auditory sensory memory contains auditory info. 2) Visual capacities are larger than auditory sensory memory, but the length of time info can be stored is longer in the auditory than visual store. 3) Info that can be stored appears relatively unprocessed. ⇒Most of info has to do w/ physical aspects of the stimuli rather than w/ meaningful ones. • Useful Guarantees a minimum of time during which info presented to us is available for processing. SHORT-TERM MEMORY • Free-recall experiment Ppl recall a list of words, and then computes the probability of recall of each word in serial position. ⇒Serial position effect Recall more words at either the beginning (primacy effect) or the end (recency effect) of the list than words in middle www.notesolution.com Participants’ rehearsal help the items enter long-term storage. →If read the list rapidly enough to prevent rehearsal, the primacy effect disappears, recency effect stays intact. The recency effect results from sensory memory or STM. →If not report right away, and perform an unrelated task, the recency effect disappears. • Capacity Maximum number of independent units can hold in STM is 7 The only way to overcome this limitation is chunking the individual units into larger units, depends on knowledge. e.g. NFLCBCFBIMTV NFL, CBC, FBI, MTV, more likely to recall ⇒The process of forming chunks is a fundamental process of memory, an important strategy in overcoming the severe limitation of having only 7 slots in which to temporarily store info. • Coding --The way in which info is mentally represented (the form in which the info is held). Recall consonants, presented visually Ps were likely to make errors that were similar in sound to the original stimuli. Formed a mental representation of the stimuli that involved the acoustic rather than the visual properties. Even when the stimuli were words rather than letters →Similar-sounding words make for poor immediate recall, similar-meaning words don’t. www.notesolution.com • Retention Duration and Forgetting Retention duration: if not rehearsed, info is lost from STM in 20 sec. The Brown-Peterson task: Present w/ a three-consonant trigram, such as BKG, also give a number, such as 347, and ask to count backward out loud by threes (prevent rehearsal). →Longer counting time, less recall ⇒The memory trace—the encoded mental representation of the to-be-remembered info that’s not rehearsed—decays, within abt 20 sec. e.g. remember phone number. Interference Some info can displace other info, making the former hard to retrieve. Forgetting in the Brown-Peterson task doesn’t happen until after a few trials. Over time, proactive interference builds up. ⇒Material learned first can disrupt retention of subsequently learned material. • Retrieval of Information Parallel search: search and exam at the same time. Serial search: compare one to one The longer the list, the longer time. Self-terminating search: stops when a match is found. Successful searches take less time www.notesolution.com Exhaustive search: even the match is found, continue looking through every other item. S
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