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Psychology (9,549)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 Chapter 1,12,13 Chapter 1 Psychology- the study of behavior, attempt to describe, explain and predict Neuropsychology- attempt to describe, explain, predict and change behavior while relating it to the brain Clinical neuropsychology- concerned with psychological assessment, management and rehabilitation of neurological disease or injury Experimental psychology- how human behavior arises from brain activity how can they be explain with damage to certain brain components Cardiac/ cardio centric thesis- (Empedoses) the heart was the source of human behavior – cognitive and emotional function - Aristotle also agreed that the heart was the source of though brain cooled the blood (incorrect blood cools brain, heart is not the source of behavior) Cephalocentric hypothesis/ brain hypothesis- belief that the heart controlled behavior- (galen believed the ventricles and CPF cognition)  corrected by Albertus Magnus Trephination- putting a hole in the skull to relieve any pain/disease Rene Descartes- Theory concluded that reflexive behavior is caused by animal spirits through the valvules within nervous tissue filaments, External behavior move skin move filaments inside move animal spirits to the muscles  cannot account for voluntary behavior -voluntary behavior depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational decision making soul - identified this interaction at the pineal gland & CSF Lesioning- (Jean-Ceasar Legallious)- destroying tissue in  medulla caused major cessation of breathing Phrenology- measurements of the skull and pronouncements on personality Equipotentiality- (Flourens)- no specialization of function within the cortex functioned as a whole Aphemia/Brocas aphasia- lesion to the frontal cortex, no speech but able to understand, did not study directly; prosody, and loss of comprehension in association with preservation of speech Prosody- the emotional tone of speech Wernicke’s aphasia- damage to the temporal lobe, no comprehension and nonsense speech Three main hurdles to study the brain - the size of the cells - the texture of the brain - lack of pigmentation in much of the brain histology- the study of thin slices of the brain (not much thicker then a neuron)  hardening by soaking in formaldehyde and staining Nissl stain- (Frankz Nissl)- staining the central portions of the neuron wherever it is applied  distinguishes neurons from other cells in the brain Golgi stain- (Camillo Golgi)- soaking tissue in silver chromate some neurons became deeply stained revealing their structure  the dendrite, axon and cell body Neuron doctrine-(Cajal) neurons are continuous and must communicate by contact Action potential- speed of an action neuron Resting membrane potential- charge at rest -Otto Loewi- experiments with frog hearts, located vagus nerve that controlled rate of heartbeat, vagus must release vagustoff in order to slow the rate of the heart -vagustoff was a neurotransmitter known as acetycholine, (worked on by henry dale, Julius Axelrod) Cytoarchitecture- typical psychical features of the neurons that reside in different regions of the brain - Korbinian brodman- same shape neurons grouped together, parts of the brain are described, regions of different cytoarchitecture would have different functions Karl Lashley and Sheppard Ivory franz- experiment to train rats into having memory, KL tried to find engram, when impairment was evident they were related t-o the size of the lesion not place,  contradicts engram theory -Engram- a hypothetical change in the brain that is responsible for storing memories -Law of Equipotentiality- proposal that the cortex functions as a whole with no functional specialization within the cortex -Law of Mass Action- the proposal that the degree of deficit is directly related to the proportion of the brain that has been lesioned Auras- a perceptual experience that occurs without sensory stimulation smelling burnt toast with nothing there Wilder Penfield- first neurosurgeon, tried to reduce the amount of tissue removed in epileptic patients, operated on wake patients to stimulate auras that correspond with the cortex being stimulated Herbert Jasper- mapping of somatosensory and motor cortex - post central gyrus of the parietal lobe- - ^ was stimulated different parts of the body react Somatosensory homunculus- a sensory and motor map of the human brain corresponding to its body parts that are affected Leuctomy- (Moniz+Lima)- white matter cutting, tracts between thalamus and frontal lobe to disconnect the two Prefrontal lobotomy-a technique practiced starting in the 1930’s by Walter Freeman, which involved in setting a sharp instrument though the eye orbit or tear duct, perforating the skull and destroying the connection to the prefrontal cortex Functional imaging- techniques for providing three-dimensional representations of brain metabolism (oxygen or glucose) have been developed while performing various tasks fMRI & PET Chapter 12 Charles Darwin- published “On the Origin of Species”, all living creatures have been and continue to be subject to natural selection Evolutionary psychology- attempts to apply the principles of adaptation and selection to human behavior Variation-differences in morphology that are characteristics of individuals Inheritance-passing differences in morphology from one generation to the next Differential reproduction –  all individuals vary differences in morphology passed to next generation  result in variations in success in the environment Sexual selection - intersexual selection- one sex chooses mate from the opposite sex based on THEIR appearance - intrasexual selection- members of the same sex compete for their partners of the opposite sex improving appearance Historical theory of evolution original version Modern synthetic theory of evolution/ modern synthesis current version Bipedal gait- walking upright with two legs Natural selection operates on phenotypes only genotypes are passed from generation to generation Modern synthesis-1) certain environments select certain phenotypes, and phenotypes are an expression of the genotype interacting with the environment. 2) Although genes occur at the level of the individual, evolutionary change occurs at the level of populations Genetic drift- the tendency for isolated populations to depart from the original genetic composition of the population also can produce evolutionary change Inbreeding- offspring resulting from related parents Gene flow- the movement of genes through a population that results from mating  profound with extensive inbreeding 3) Species represent different gene pools, rather then fundamentally unique groups Comparison of the brain focuses on three main features (brain stem) - newer species have larger brains - The increase in size that is observed in newer species is primarily in cortical areas - Newer species have an increasingly complex cortex, as defined by the number of layers of cells and the number of cortical convolutions (wrinkles) Proximate cause- describe the internal mechanisms that underlie a behavior immediate cause of behavior  related to the amygdala Ultimate cause- describe the evolutionary basis behind a behavior including a description of what makes a given behavior adaptive - preference for sweet foods comes from the need for nutrients within Tabula Rasa- human brain resembled a blank slate at birth all knowledge must be acquired through experience Adaptation properties - recure across generations - appear reliably over the developmental life of the organism - Their appearance is influenced by genetic specifications - Interact with features of the environment that are normally present - Help solve an adaptive problem of the organism - Propagated during a period of selection because they enhanced the survival and or reproduction of an individual Evolutionary psychologyhelps us define which functions we should attempt to localize Neural circuits investigating adaptive issues 1) Completely structured for specific problem 2) reliably develop in all normal humans 3) develop without formal instruction 4) are applied without conscious awareness 5) are distinct from more general processing abilities Endoc
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