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PSYC62 - Ch10 textbook notes

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Suzanne Erb

PSYC62 Chapter 10 Opioids Narcotics and their Antagonistsoldest psychotropic drugs used by humans are morphine and codeinewere originally used in the form of extracts from the poppy plant which contains opium these drugs are the most effective pain relievers used as analgesic treatments users often experience euphoria drowsiness mental clouding as a result these drugs are also used recreationally and highly abusedmost common term for morphine and similar drugs is narcoticrefers to a class of drugs that promote sleep and induce analgesia drugs that bear little similarity to morphine in terms of their neurochemical actions or psychological effects like cocaine and marijuana have been designated as narcotics but pharmacologically a narcotic is a drug which has the following qualities 1 Has sedativehypnotic and analgesic properties 2 Acts stereospecifically on endorphinenkephalin receptors 3 Its actions are antagonized by naloxone Narcan narcotics are restricted to extracts of opium opiates opiate derivatives and synthetic drugs w opiate propertiesthese substances are now referred to as opioids NARCOTICSOPIATESOPIOIDS Endogenous Opioid Peptides and their receptorsthere are a multitude of substances endogenous to the brain and body with opiate propertiesendogenous opioid peptidesthere are 3 distinct families enkephalins endorphins and dynorphins these are categorized as ENDORPHINSeach family is derived from different precursor polypeptides each precursor contains many biologically active opioid and nonopioid peptides which are cleaved at specific sites by specific enzymes proteases to produce active agentsendogenous opioid peptides coexist w other hormonesneurotransmitters all opioid receptors are Gproteincoupled metabotropic receptors three major classes of opioid receptors are mu delta kappa and a new classnociceptinorphanin FQNOFQmu receptors are morphine and naloxonselective mediate euphoriainducing properties of typical opiates ie morphine methadone other effects include supraspinal and spinal analgesia respiratory depression cardiovascular effects delta receptors are enkephalinselective and induce spinal analgesia
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