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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Notes

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 6: Learning & Reward
How did the behavioral study of learning develop?
x Learning is a relatively enduring change in behavior that results from experience.
x Watson founded school of behaviorism Æ Based on the belief that animals and humans
were born with the potential to learn anything
x Behavioral responses are conditioned (View Lecture Notes on Saliva Reflex)
Classical Conditioning: A type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object
comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already
produces that response
Acquisition Æ Gradual formation of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Extinction Æ Conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned
stimuli is repeated without unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery Æ Previously extinguished response reemerges
following presentation of the conditioned stimulus
Stimulus Generalization Æ Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not
identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
Stimulus Discrimination Æ Learned tendency to differentiate between two
similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned
stimulus and the other is not
x Phobia: Acquired fear that is out of proportion to a real threat.
Phobia develops though the generalization of a fear experience
Counter conditioning can help people overcome fears
Systematic sensitization is when patients are taught how to relax their muscles
through relaxation exercises
x Classic conditioning involves more than contiguity
Any object or phenomenon could be converted into a conditioned stimulus during
conditioning trials.
Equipotentiality: Stimuli are capable of producing conditioning
Biological Preparedness: Animals are genetically programmed to fear specific
objects
Animals come to predict the occurrence of events
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Description
Chapter 6: Learning & Reward How did the behavioral study of learning develop? N Learning is a relatively enduring change in behavior that results from experience. N Watson founded school of behaviorism Based on the belief that animals and humans were born with the potential to learn anything N Behavioral responses are conditioned (View Lecture Notes on Saliva Reflex) Classical Conditioning: A type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Acquisition Gradual formation of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Extinction Conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimuli is repeated without unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous Recovery Previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus Stimulus Generalization Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response Stimulus Discrimination Learned tendency to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and the other is not N Phobia: Acquired fear that is out of proportion to a real threat. Phobia develops though the generalization of a fear experience Counter conditioning can help people overcome fears Systematic sensitization is when patients are taught how to relax their muscles through relaxation exercises N Classic conditioning involves more than contiguity Any object or phenomenon could be converted into a conditioned stimulus during conditioning trials. Equipotentiality: Stimuli are capable of producing conditioning Biological Preparedness: Animals are genetically programmed to fear specific objects Animals come to predict the occurrence of events www.notesolution.com
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