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PSY100H1 (1,804)
Chapter 9

chapter 9

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion How does motivation activate direct and sustain behaviourMotivation factors that energize direct or sustain behaviour o Activate or arouse behaviours and guide behaviours towards satisfying specific goals o Help people persist in their behaviour until goals are achieved o Motives differ in strength Multiple Factors motivate behaviourMaslows need hierarchy Maslows arrangement of needs in which basic survival needs must be met before people can satisfy higher needsNeed state of biological or social deficiencySelfactualization a state that is achieved when ones personal dreams and aspirations have been attained Needs create arousal which motivates behaviourArousal physiological activation such as increased brain activity autonomic responses sweating or muscle tensionDrive psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needsHomeostasis tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibriumA drive increases in proportion to the amount of deprivationIf behaviour consistently reduces a drive it becomes a habitIncentives external stimuli that motivates behavioursYerkesdodson law performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousalDrives operate on pleasure principle seek pleasure and avoid painAnimals engage in behaviours that do not necessarily satisfy biological needsBehaviour associated with pleasure often promote the animals survival and reproduction Some behaviours are motivated for their own sake xtrinsic motivationmotivation to perform an activity because of the external goals towardwhich that activity is directedIntrinsic motivation motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity rather than for an apparent external goal or purpose o Satisfy natural curiousity and creativity o Creativity useful in solving problems communicating and entertaining ourselves and othersExtrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation o Why would they play with them for free when they were used to being paidSelfdetermination theory people are motivated to satisfy needs for competence relatedness to others and autonomy
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