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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 study guide: Motivation

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 9 : Motivation -motivation is the area of psychological science that studies the factors that energize, or stimulate behaviour. How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior? -most general theories of motivation emphasize FOUR essential qualities of motivational states. 1) motivational states are energizing in that they activate or arouse behaviour. 2) motivational states are directive in that they guide behaviors toward satisfying specific goals or needs. 3) motivational states help people to persist in their behavior until goals are achieved or needs are satisfied 4) most theories agree that motives differ in strength, depending on both internal and external factors. Needs, Drives, and Arousal Motivate Behaviour -we have to satisfy our biological needs. -a need is a state of deficiency, such as a lack of air or food -we also have social needs, such as the need for achievement and the need to be with others. -Maslows Heirarchy of Needs, in which survival needs like hunger and thirst were lowest and personal growth needs were highest in terms of ultimate priority. -Maslow believed that satisfaction of lower needs allowed humans to function to upper levels. -Maslows theory is an examples of humanistic psychology, in which people are viewed as striving toward personal fullfllment. -a state of self-actuatlization occurs when someone achieves his or her personal dreams and aspirations. -the greater the need, the greater motivation to satisfy it. Drive -How do we satisfy our needs? Drives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs. -needs create arousal, which motivates behaviours that will satisfy these needs. -Arousal is a generic term used to describe physiological activation or increased autonomic resonses. -Clark Hall: The drive state creates arousal, which activates behaviours until performing one of them reduces the drive. -any behaviour that satisfies a need is reinforced and therefore is more likely to occur. -if a behaviour consistently reduces a drive, it becomes a habit. -One criticism of Hull was that his theory could not explain why people choose to engage in behaviour that do not appear to satisfy biological needs. www.notesolution.comalthought drive states push us to reduce arousal, we are also pulled toward certain things in our environments. incentives: are external objects, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviours. Arousal -Yerks-Dodson law dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal, thus creating a shape like an inverted U. ex: you perform best on exams when you have a moderate level of anxiety. -Arousal, then, not only motivates us to satisfy basic needs, but an optimal amount of arousal is also desirable on its own. Pleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviours -motivation can be viewed as a capability that initiates, directs, and sustains behaviours that promote survival and reproduction. -arouse behaviours that solve adaptive problems. -Sigmund Freud drives are satisfied according to the pleasure principle, which tells organism to seek pleasure and avoid pain. -ex: sex. We have sex because it feels good, but it is also essential for survival of species. -From an evolutionary perspective, behaviours associated with pleasure are often those that promote the animals survival and reproduction, whereas behaviours associated with pain interfere with survival and reproduction. Some Behaviours are Motivated for their Own Sake -Extrinistic motivation emphasizes the external goals toward which an activity is directed, such as drive reduction or reward. ex: working hard to earn a paycheck at the end of the week. -Intrinstic motivation refers to the value of pleasure that is associated with an activity but that has no apparent biological goal or purpose. ex: listening to music. Intrinstic motivated behaviours are performed for their own sake. Curiosity and Play -curiosity is a mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behaviour. -Playful exploration is characteristic of all mammals and especially primate. -One obvious function of play is that it lets us learn about objects in the environment; this clearly has survival value. Creativity and Problem Solving -many intrinsically motivated behaviours allow people to express creativity. -Creativity is the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communicating, and entertaining ourselves and others. www.notesolution.com
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