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Chapter 4

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

adopting a healthy lifestyle  Most weight problems are lifestyle problems, NOT all  Slow weight gain is a major cause of overweight & obesity  weight management important for everyone  Early adulthood good time to adopt healthy behaviours  Several life style are critical for long term weight management  Research: weight gain in university  Cornell university (2003) students put an average of 15 lbs between the time they leave highschool and the end of 1 year university (“freshmen 15”)  Students gained 4lbs during 1 3 months that’s 11x expected weight gain for typical 17-18 year old and 20x expected weight gain for average adult  Accounted for all-you-can-eat dining facilities, increase in # of evening snacks, increase in # of weekend meals, increase in consumptions of junk and recent dieting  University of Guelph (2006)  suggest that freshmen 15 is a myth st  Study included 100 1 year women st  women gained 5 lbs between time they left highschool and end of 1 year  they mearured their BMI and waist circumference  BMI isn’t good measure because muscle weighs more then fat so you can technically be obese according to the scale eventhough you’re fit  Thinking and emotions  Low self esteem and negative emotions often accompany weight issues  Internally held pictures of “ideal self” often results of unrealistic goals and beliefs about how we and others should be (this is how I want to look, this is how I look now and I don’t like it)  Challenge these beliefs and replace with realistic ones  Involves setting realistic goals, engaging positive self talk, stopping negative self talk, problem solving  Coping strategies  Food is often used as a coping mechanism  Healthier ways of coping include o Fostering communication skills o Learning to manage interpersonal conflict o Creating and maintaining healthy relatinships o Using food appropriately a fuel for life’s activities and not as rewards for kids o Obtaining adequate amounts of sleep  Body image and self concept  Consists of perceptions, images, thoughts, attitudes, and emotions  Developing a positive body image important for psychological wellness  Individuals with negative body image more likely to diet restrictively, eat compulsively or develop other eating disorders  Society/media tells us we should conform to “ideal” body image  Average actress and model is thinner then 95% of the actual female population and weighs 23% less then the average woman  People easily become dissatisfied with their inability to achieve ideals  Ex the real truth about beauty revisited o 4% described themselves as beautiful o only 11% of girls are comfortable using the word beautiful to descrie themselves o 72% (3/4) of girls feel tremendous pressure to be beautiful  self esteem and body image are influenced by social interacton through 2 processes: o reflected appraisal  we see ourselves as how others see us or how we think others see us perceived reactions  females tend to attach more importance to physical appearance than males  particularly influential are the reactions of significant others o social comparison  rating ourselves in relation to others  points awarded for similarities, deducted for differences  based on standards set by pop culture  cant change heredity o body weight and body shape are both influenced by heredity o but we can change lifestyle! o Individuals can engage in regular physical activity, obtain adequate nutrition, maintain healthy eating habits o Body changes as a result of the above behaviors wil be natural and appropriate for your genetic makeup  The Issue of Childhood Obesity  Canadian children have become increasingly overweight and obese  31.5% of 5-17 year old children are overweight (19.8%) or obese (11.7%) compared to 15% in 1978  obesity is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, with up to 85% of children either overweight or obese at diagnosis (American diabetes association)  double diabetes when kids have type 1 and type 2 diabetes  Linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, discrimination Text notes  # of obese adults doubled between 1978 and 2004  fun fact: direct physical measurements have found that about 37% of adult Canadians are overweight and 24% are obese basic concepts of weight management  body consumption  human body devided into fat free mass and body fat  body fat 3 types o subcutaneous fat  fat just beneath the skin  protective for variety of diseases  buffer for excess energy  when fat capacity is exceeded, fat accumulates in other places  80% of body fat is here  when found on hips gynoid obesity o visceral fat  fat imbedded within the mesentery  tissue that connects the intestines to the back of the abdominal wall  linked to CVD and other diseases  10%-20% of total fat in men, 5%-8% in women  amount increases in age o ectopic fat  located within organs (ex. Liver, heart, brain)  increases risk for metabolic syndrome, heart disease and stroke  1kg of body fat= 7000 calories  % body fat is whats really important though  overweight isn’t a good representation of a persons physique, over fat is a better one  energy balance  resting metabolism your body using energy for vital metabolism functions  if same amount of energy goes in as out then you maintain your body weight  positive energy balance consuming more calories then burning  negative energy balance burning more
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