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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

APPENDIX – RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Hypothesis: A formal statement of the expected relationship between two variables. Variables: Measures that can take on two or more values. Types of Variables Independent variable: The variable that predicts or is the cause of variation in a dependent variable. Dependent variable: The variable that is expected to vary as a result of changes to te independent variable. Moderating variable: A variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the level of the moderating variable. Mediating variable: A variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable. Measurement of Variables Reliability: An index of the consistency of a research subject’s response. Validity: An index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is supposed to measure. Convergent validity: When there is a strong relationship between different measures of the same variable. Discriminant validity: When there is a weak relationship between measures of different variables. Three basic kinds of research techniques: 1. Observation 2. Correlation 3. Experimentation Observational Techniques Observational research: Research that examines the natural activities of people in an organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they do. Participant observation: Observational research in which the researcher becomes a functioning member of the organizational unit being studied. Direct observation: Observational research in which the researcher observes organizational behavior without taking part in the studied activity.
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