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Chapter 13

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2550A/B
Professor
Kelly Olson
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER13 EXPLORINGINTERNALEXPERIENCE  Phenomenologistslike RogersandKellywantedtogobeyondintrospectionandanchortheirtheoriestoscientificmethods  Rogers:therapistentersinternalworld ofclientbyobservationandinterference  Kelly:concernedwithobjective measurementofsubjective experience  Whyselfmatters:ConsequencesofSelf-discrepancies  People experience differenttypesofdiscrepanciesbetweendifferentaspectsoftheself,andthese discrepanciesinfluencetheirsubsequentemotionsand behavioursin predictableways  Actualself -yourselfasyouare(agoodbasketballplayer)  Thebeliefaboutthe attributesoneactuallyhas  Idealself- whoyou wouldlike tobe(a greatbasketballplayer)  Thebeliefsabouttheattributesonewouldlike to haveideally  Oughtself-whoyou believeyoushould be(adoctor)  Thebeliefsabouttheattributesoneisobligatedtohave,i.e.,thatare one'sduty topossess  Higgins:suchdiscrepanciesmaybeexperiencednotonly from one'sown vantagepoint,butalsofromthatofsignificantothers(parents, oldersiblings)  Illustrative self-discrepancies: Typesofself-discrepancies Inducedfeelings Example Actual/own:Ideal/own Disappointmentanddissatisfaction IndejectedbecauseI'mnotas attractive asIwouldliketobe Actual/own:Ideal/other Shameandembarrassment I'mashamedbecauseIfailtobeaskindaperson asmyparentswishedmetobe Actual/own:Ought/own Guiltandself-contempt Ihate myselfbecauseIshouldhave morewillpower Actual/own:Ought/other Fearorfeelingthreatened I'mafraidmyfatherwillbeangrywith mebecauseIdidn'tworkashardashe believesIshould  Todealwithdiscrepanciesbetweenthe perceivedactualselfandthe ownidealself:onecan re-evaluatethenegativeinterpretation ofpastpainfulevents  Toremovediscrepancies:people maychangetheiractualbehaviourtomatchanimportantstandard  Thework onself-discrepanciesmakesclearthattheselfmatters --becausetheinternalexperiencesthatpeople havewhentheyperceivesuchdiscrepanciesare consequentialfortheemotionstheyexperienceandforthecopingpatternstheyusetotrytodeal withthem  Theviewthroughtheperson'seyes  Phenomenologicalstudybeginswiththeperson'sownviewpoint --startswiththeindividual'sself-presentation  The mostdirectwaytoinquireaboutanotherperson'sexperienceistoask himtodepicthimself --theseself-reportsare usedasabasis fortheclinicianto generateinferencesandpredictionsabouthimorher  Becauseoftheassumptionthatpeopleengageinextensiveunconsciousdistortion  Wetry toattendtohimratherthantoourstereotypesand theoreticalconstructs  Infocus13.1Effectsofself-discrepancy:Anorexia  Anorexicbehaviourhasbeenlinked toactual/oughtdiscrepancies  More characteristicofpeople whoseactualself-conceptsarediscrepantfromtheirrepresentationsof how significantothersbelievethey oughtto be  Bulimiceatingproblemsare moreassociatedwithdiscrepanciesbetweenpeople'sactualself-conceptandtheirown idealself-concepts  Experiencedejection  Doesnotdependsontheperson'sactualbody mass  Usesofself-assessments  Usefulinformationaboutpeople maybeobtainedmostdirectlybysimplyaskingthem  Schizopatients:simpleself-reportson attitudescalesyieldedbetterpredictions thandidpsychometrically more sophisticatedscales  PeaceCorps:attitude statementswere alsothe bestpredictorsofsuccesshere -- self-reports>>interviews,pooledglobal ratings  Undersome conditions, people maybe abletoreportandpredicttheirown behaviouratleastasaccuratelyasexperts  People don'talwayspredicttheirownbehaviouraccuratelythough:lackinfoor motivation toforetelltheirownbehaviour,motivatednottorevealfuture behaviour  Manyvariables outside the person'scontrol(accidents,otherpeople)  TheQ-sorttechnique  Tocompare people, they needtousethe samestandardlanguagetocompare themselves  Q-technique/Q-sort:cardswithprintedself-descriptionson them  Arrange themin mosttoleastself-descriptive  Todescribeself, relationships, characteristicsassociatedwithsuccessfulperformanceinagiventask  Compare Q-sortsatdifferentagestocharacterizedevelopmentalchanges  Unlikeothermeasuresthatcompareindividualswitheachotheralonga given dimension toobtainbetween-person differences,the goalofQ-sortassessmentis thepattern ofthe variouscharacteristicswithin eachperson  Everyonehasthe samescore onaverage, butdifferinthearrangementamongthesetofcharacteristics  Interviews  Modernphenomenologistshave recognizedthatself-reportsmaynotrevealeverythingimportantaboutbehaviour  Sotheyfocuson the person'sframe ofreferenceasanimportantvantage pointforunderstandinghimorher  Roger'sview:the psychologiststaskistoprovide conditionsthatareconducive togrowthandthatfacilitate freeexploration offeelingsandselfin atherapeutic context  Client-centeredRogeriantherapy  Rogeriansusetheinterviewtoobserve howtheindividualinterpretshimselfandhisexperiences --donein anatmosphereconducivetogenuineself-disclosure in whichself-revelationandself-reportsareactivelyencouraged  Thesemanticdifferential  Usedtostudywhatdifferentstimuli,events,orotherexperiencesmeantotheindividual(personalsignificance)  Rateself-conceptson scalesforthe meaningofeachconcept  Objectiveandflexible  Three mainfactorstendtoemergewhenresultsareanalyzed:  Primaryevaluative(good-bad) factor- mostimportant  Potency- hard-soft,masculine-feminine,strong-weak  Activity- active-passive,excitable-calm, hot-cold  Nonverbalcommunication  Semanticdifferential, Reptest= sample verbalbehaviour  Nonverbal communication =facialexpressions,movements,andgestures  Interviewersevaluatesparticipantspositively,theyincreaseeyecontactwithhim;negatively,decreaseeyecontact  Study:whentheverbal contentwaspositive,morefrequenteyecontacton the partofthe interviewerproducedmore positiveevaluationsoftheinterviewer  Whenverbal contentwasnegative, morefrequenteyecontactproducedmorenegativeevaluation  Phenomenological"inner"experiencesmaybevisibleintheformofnonverbal behaviours  Studyinglivesfromtheinside:Psychobiography  Psychobiography istheintensivestudy ofindividuallives  Attemptstoprovidea comprehensivepsychologicalunderstandingofoneperson  Narrativeidentity:Storiesthatgivelivesmeaning  McAdamsbuildson Erikson'sidentity concept  McAdamsfocusesonthe personalnarratives -the stories- thatpeople tellthemselvesastheytrytomakesense oftheirownlivesandexperiences  Thestoriesyou tellina collegeapplication,ajobinterview,whenbuildinga relationshipwithapotentialromanticpartner,orina privatediaryentrytoyourself willvary  Worthhearing --psychologistswillbenefit  Identityself-constructions try toanswerbasicquestionsaboutwhooneis,why onelives,andhow onefitsinto/orneedstochangetheexistingsocialorder ofthe adultworld  Narrativeidentitydealswiththeinternalstoriesthatevolve overtimetomake senseofthe diverse, often conflictingaspectsofoneselfandone'sbehaviour  Helpprovide coherencetoa chaoticlife  Asonedevelopsandmaturescognitivelyandpersonally,the lifestorybecomesincreasinglycoherentandorganized  Bymid-adolescence,itallcomestogether  Intime,narrativeidentitymayinfluencehow theperson developshisself-conceptsandregulateshisbehaviourstomakethemconsistentwiththatemergingself ENHANCINGSELF-AWARENESS:ACCESSINGONE'SEXPERIENCES  Changingthesubjectiveviews ofthe self can havesignificantimpactonindividuals'well-being  Psychedelicdrugs,likepsilocybinandLSD--untilfoundseriousrisks  Increaseawarenesswithoutdrugs:meditation,encountergroups, "marathons"  Gestalttherapy  Early:confrontationsandencounters thatquicklychallengedthe person'sselfreportedexperiences,sometimesinterpretingthemassuperficialanddefensive; rapidattemptstoprobethedeeperfeelingsthat mightunderliewhatthe persondisclosed  Modern:lessrapid/dramaticconfrontation; a slower, moreempathicattempttoexploretheperson'sinternalexperiences;aimistofocusawarenesson whatis beingfeltfullyandhonestly  Centerofthetherapeutic relationship:e
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