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Chapter 2

BU288 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Job Performance, Extraversion And Introversion, Conscientiousness


Department
Business
Course Code
BU288
Professor
Greg Irving
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2
Personality
What is Personality?
The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the
way an individual interacts with his/her environment and how they feel,
think, and behave
Your personal style of dealing with the world
Determined by genetic predisposition and learning history
Although it is stable, it is susceptible to change through adult learning
experiences
Personality and Organizational Behaviour:
Dispositional approach individuals possess stable traits/characteristics
that influence their attitudes and behaviours (individuals are predisposed to
behave in certain ways)
Situational approach characteristics of the organizational setting influence
peoples attitudes and behaviour
Interactionist approach individuals’ attitudes and behaviour rare a function
of both dispositions and the situation (combines the two approaches)
Trait activation theory traits lead to certain behaviours only when the
situation makes a need for the trait
The Five-Factor Model of Personality:
Extraversion
o Being social, talkative vs shy and withdrawn
o Enjoy social situations and excel in jobs with interpersonal interaction
Emotional Stability/Neuroticism
o The degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control
o High emotional stability = low neuroticism (high self esteem and
confidence)
o Low emotional stability = high neuroticism (self doubt, depression,
anxious, hostile)
o High emotional stability will likely have more effective interactions
with co-workers and customers because there more calm and secure
Agreeables
o Extent to which a person is friendly and approachable
o Contributes to job performance in jobs that require interaction and
involve helping, cooperating, and nurturing others
Conscientiousness
o Degree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented
o High conscientiousness people are likely to perform well on most jobs
given their tendency towards hard work and achievement
Openness to Experience
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o Extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas
o Excel in jobs that involve learning and creativity
Extraversion
Emotional
Stability
Agreeables
Conscientiousnes
s
Openness to
Experience
Sociable, talkative
vs.
Withdrawn, shy
Stable,
confident
vs.
Depressed,
anxious
Tolerant,
cooperative
vs.
Cold, rude
Dependable,
responsible
vs.
Careless, impulsive
Curious, original
vs.
Dull,
unimaginative
Locus of Control:
A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by
internal or external forces
Externals see the world as unpredictable and chancy, fate and powerful
people control their destinies
Internals tend to see stronger links between the effort they put into their jobs
and the performance level thy they achieve
Self-Monitoring:
The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and
behave in social settings and relationships
High self monitors will observe the thoughts, actions, and feelings around
them and control the images they project
Low self monitors don’t care up scoping out and fitting in with the people
around them
Self-Esteem:
The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
Behavioural plasticity theory people with low self-esteem tend to be more
susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-
esteem
Positive and Negative Affectivity:
Positive Affectivity propensity to view the world, including oneself and
others, in a positive light
o Tend to be cheerful, enthusiastic, energetic, and sociable
Negative Affectivity propensity to view the world blah blah in a negative
light
o Tend to be distressed, depressed, and unhappy
Proactive Personality:
A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal
initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive
change in one’s environment
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