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Chapter 4

BU354 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Paq, Job Rotation, Performance Management

Course Code
Steve Risavy

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Chapter 4: Designing and Analyzing Jobs
Organizational structure: formal relationships among jobs in an org
Bureaucratic Structure:
- top down mgmt. approach
- many levels, hierarchical comm channels and career paths
- highly specialized jobs, narrowly defined job descriptions
- independent performance
Flat Structure:
- Decentralized
- Few levels and multi-directional
- Broadly defined jobs, general descriptions
- Emphasis on teams and product development
Matrix Structure:
- each job has 2 components (functional and product)
- ex: finance personnel is responsible for finance and product
Job Design: systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform
a specific job
Job: group of related activities and duties. Should be clear and distinct
Position: Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person
Ex: 1 supervisor, 1 clerk, 5 assemblers 3 jobs and 7 positions
Job Specialization (Industrial Engineering)
- Positive correlation between job specialization and productivity/efficiency
- Work Simplification:
o Came from scientific mgmt theory
o Approach to job design that assigns
most of the administrative aspects of work
(planning/organization) to supervisors/managers
lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform
according to methods established by mgmt.
o increase operating efficiency in a stable environment
o simplified jobs = lower satisfaction, higher absenteeism/turnover
- Industrial Engineering:
o Analyzes work methods, establishing time standards to improve
o Identify, analyze, time the elements of each job’s work cycle and
determine which elements can be modified, combined, rearranged,
eliminated to reduce the time needed to compete the cycle
o Efficiency and simplifying work methods may result in neglecting
human considerations
o Repetitive strain injuries, low satisfaction, high turnover
Behavioural Aspects of Job Design:
- Job Enlargement: horizontal loading, more tasks at same level to relieve
monotony and boredom
- Job rotation: systematically moves employees between jobs to relieve
monotony and boredom
- Job Enrichment: vertical loading, makes job more rewarding/satisfying by
adding more meaningful tasks
o Increase difficulty/responsibility
o Give them more authority/control
o Add new tasks requiring training (growth opp)
o Assigning entire tasks
- Team Based Job Design: gives a team a whole/meaningful piece of work to
do. Empowers team members to decide how to accomplish it.
Ergonomic Aspects of Job Design:
- ergonomics: integrates/accommodates physical needs of workers into design
of jobs (adapt job systems, work, environment, machines, to match human
- minimize negative physiological effects, or meet needs to disabled or elderly
Job Analysis:
- procedure for determining tasks, duties, responsibilities of each job and the
KSAs required to perform. Cornerstone of HRM
- Human Resource Planning: knowing actual requirements of job, knowing
KSAs of current employees, and determine which jobs can be filled internally
or externally
- Recruitment and Selection: who to hire based on job
- Compensation: determine appropriate compensation for each job, justify
pay differences
- Performance Appraisal: criteria used to assess performance must be
directly related to duties
- Labour Relations: job descriptions subject to union approval
- Training, Development, Career Mgmt: compare KSAs of employees and
determine gaps that require training programs
- Job Design: ensures all duties having to be done have actually been assigned
Steps in Job Analysis:
1. Data collection and techniques
- Ex: ask employees what responsibilities are OR compare jobs for
compensation purposes
2. Review relevant background information like Organization charts, process
charts, existing job descriptions
- Process chart: shows flow of inputs to and outputs from the job
3. Select the Representative positions/jobs to be analyzed
- Can be many positions in a single job, very similar… too time consuming
to examine every position
4. Analyze jobs by collecting data on job activities, required employee
behaviours, working conditions, human traits/abilities needed
5. Review the information with current workers and supervisors
6. Develop Job Description/Specification
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
- Qualitative Techniques:
o Interview: with individual or group of employees, with
o Questionaires, observation, participant diary/log
- Quantitative Techniques:
o Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ):
collect quantifiable data concerning duties of various jobs
how the job rates based on: information input, mental
processes, work output, relationships with others, job
context, other characteristics
o Functional Job Analysis (FJA): Rates job on responsibilities for
data, people, and things (tangibles)
o National Occupational Classification (NOC): reference tool for
writing job descriptions/specs. Focus on occupations instead of
jobs (collection of jobs that share main duties)
o Internet-based Job Analysis: web surveys
Writing Job Descriptions/Specifications:
- Job Descriptions:
o What and How they do job, Under What conditions job performed
o list of duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working
o Job identification: position title, department, location, reports to
o Job summary: descript general nature of job, major
o Relationships: with others inside/outside org
o Duties and Responsibilities
o Authority: define limits of jobholder’s authority (decision making,
direct supervision of others, budget limits)
o Performance Standards/Indicators
o Working Conditions and physical environement
- Job Specifications: