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Chapter 4

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Steve Risavy

Chapter 4: Designing and Analyzing Jobs Organizational structure: formal relationships among jobs in an org Bureaucratic Structure: - top down mgmt. approach - many levels, hierarchical comm channels and career paths - highly specialized jobs, narrowly defined job descriptions - independent performance Flat Structure: - Decentralized - Few levels and multi-directional - Broadly defined jobs, general descriptions - Emphasis on teams and product development Matrix Structure: - each job has 2 components (functional and product) - ex: finance personnel is responsible for finance and product Job Design: systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job Job: group of related activities and duties. Should be clear and distinct Position: Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person Ex: 1 supervisor, 1 clerk, 5 assemblers  3 jobs and 7 positions Job Specialization (Industrial Engineering) - Positive correlation between job specialization and productivity/efficiency - Work Simplification: o Came from scientific mgmt theory o Approach to job design that assigns  most of the administrative aspects of work (planning/organization) to supervisors/managers  lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established by mgmt. o increase operating efficiency in a stable environment o simplified jobs = lower satisfaction, higher absenteeism/turnover - Industrial Engineering: o Analyzes work methods, establishing time standards to improve efficiency o Identify, analyze, time the elements of each job’s work cycle and determine which elements can be modified, combined, rearranged, eliminated to reduce the time needed to compete the cycle o Efficiency and simplifying work methods may result in neglecting human considerations o Repetitive strain injuries, low satisfaction, high turnover Behavioural Aspects of Job Design: - Job Enlargement: horizontal loading, more tasks at same level to relieve monotony and boredom - Job rotation: systematically moves employees between jobs to relieve monotony and boredom - Job Enrichment: vertical loading, makes job more rewarding/satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks o Increase difficulty/responsibility o Give them more authority/control o Add new tasks requiring training (growth opp) o Assigning entire tasks - Team Based Job Design: gives a team a whole/meaningful piece of work to do. Empowers team members to decide how to accomplish it. Ergonomic Aspects of Job Design: - ergonomics: integrates/accommodates physical needs of workers into design of jobs (adapt job systems, work, environment, machines, to match human characteristics) - minimize negative physiological effects, or meet needs to disabled or elderly Job Analysis: - procedure for determining tasks, duties, responsibilities of each job and the KSAs required to perform. Cornerstone of HRM - Human Resource Planning: knowing actual requirements of job, knowing KSAs of current employees, and determine which jobs can be filled internally or externally - Recruitment and Selection: who to hire based on job description/specification - Compensation: determine appropriate compensation for each job, justify pay differences - Performance Appraisal: criteria used to assess performance must be directly related to duties - Labour Relations: job descrip
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