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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 BU354.docx

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John Coffey

BU354 Chapter 7 – Selection Week 5 The Strategic Important of Employee Selection -Selection – the process of choosing among individuals who have been recruited to fill existing or projected job openings -Selection begins when a pool of applicants has submitted their resumes or completed application forms as a result of the recruiting process -Candidates must fit with the strategic direction of the organization -Human rights legislation in every Canadian jurisdiction prohibits discrimination in all aspects, terms, and conditions of employment on such grounds as race, religion or creed, colour, marital status, gender, age, and disability -Organizations required by law to implement an employment equity plan must ensure that all their employment systems, including selection, are bias-free and do not have an adverse impact on members of the four designated groups – women, visible minorities, Aboriginal people, and persons with disabilities -Suggested guidelines: 1. Ensure that all selection criteria and strategies are based on the job description and the job specifications 2. Adequately assess the applicant’s ability to meet performance standards or expectations 3. Carefully scrutinize all information supplied on application forms and resumes 4. Obtain written authorization for reference checking from prospective employees, and check references carefully 5. Save all records and information obtained about the applicant during each stage of the selection process 6. Reject applicants who make false statements on their application forms or resumes Supply Challenges -Certain vacant positions may be subject to a labour shortage, while other vacant positions may be subject to a labour surplus -Selection ratio- the ratio of the number of applicants hired to the total number of applicants Number of applicants hired / total number of applicants = Selection ratio -A small selection ratio such as 1:2 may be indicative of a limited number of applicants from which to select, and it may also mean low-quality recruits, and vice versa for a large selection ratio such as 1:400 The Selection Process -Multiple hurdle strategy – an approach to selection involving a series of successive steps or hurdles. Only candidates clearing the hurdle are permitted to move on to the next step -Clearing the hurdle requires meeting or exceeding the minimum requirements established for that hurdle -The number and sequence of steps often vary with the type and level of the job -At each step in the selection process, carefully chosen selection criteria must be used to determine which applicants will move on to the next step -Designing an effective selection process involves composing a series of job-related questions to be asked of all applicants for a particular job -5 steps, the first 2 should occur before recruitment: 1. Decide who will be involved in the selection process and develop selection criteria 2. Specify musts and wants and weight the wants -Must criteria- requirements that are absolutely essential for the job, include a measurable standard of acceptability, or are absolute and can be screened initially on paper -Want criteria – those criteria that represent qualifications that cannot be screened on paper or are not readily measurable, as well as those that are highly desirable but not BU354 Chapter 7 – Selection Week 5 critical 3. Determine assessment strategies and develop an evaluation form – See Figure 7.2 on p. 179 4. Develop interview questions to be asked of all candidates 5. Develop candidate specific questions Acquiring Employees and the Law -The entire recruitment and selection procedure must comply with human rights legislation -All information collected from the time an ad is posted to the time that the selection decision is made must be free from questions that wold directly or indirectly classify candidates on the basis of any of the prohibited grounds under human rights legislation -If the process collects any information that is considered a prohibited ground for discrimination, an unsuccessful candidate may challenge the legality of the entire recruitment and selection processes -Keep the following guidelines in mind: 1. Selection personnel cannot ask questions that would violate human rights legislation, either directly or indirectly 2. All candidates must be treated in the same manner 3. Cutting short an interview based on preconceived notions about the gender or race of the “ideal” candidate must also be avoided, because it is another example of illegal differential treatment 4. A helpful phrase to keep in mind when designing selection criteria is “This job requires…” Step 1: Preliminary Applicant Screening -Generally performed by members of the HR department -Application forms and resumes are reviewed and hose candidates not meeting the essential selection criteria are eliminated firm -Then, the remaining applications are examined and those candidates who most closely match the remaining job specifications are identified and given further consideration Step 2: Selection Testing -Testing techniques provide efficient, standardized procedures for screening large number of applicants -Psychological and personality tests The Importance of Reliability and Validity Reliability -Reliability- the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time; in other words, the degree of dependability, consistency, or stability of the measures used -Reliability can be diminished when questions are answered randomly, when the test setting is noisy or uncomfortable, and when the applicant is tired or unwell Validity -Validity – the accuracy with which a predictor measures what it is intended to measure -Differential validity- confirmation that the selection tool accurately predicts the performance of all possible employee subgroups, including white males, women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, and Aboriginal people -Criterion-related validity- the extent to which a selection tool predicts or significantly correlates with important elements of work behaviour -Content validity – the extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform the job -Construct validity – the extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct of trait BU354 Chapter 7 – Selection Week 5 deemed necessary to perform the job successfully Tests of Cognitive Abilities Intelligence Tests -Intelligence tests – tests that measure general intellectual abilities, such as verbal comprehension, inductive reasoning, memory, numerical ability, speed of perception, spatial visualization, and word fluency Emotional Intelligence (EI) Tests -Emotional intelligence tests- tests that measure a person’s ability to monitor his or her own emotions and the emotions of others and to use that knowledge to guide thoughts and actions -Many people believe that EQ, which can be modified through conscious effort and practice, is actually a more important determinant of success Specific Cognitive Abilities -Aptitude tests- tests that measure an individual’s aptitude or potential to perform a job, provided he or she is given proper training Tests of Motor and Physical Abilities -Tests of physical ability may be required -Many motor abilities tests – Ex. The Crawford Small Parts Dexterity Test – measures the speed and accuracy of simply judgment, as well as the speed of finger, hand and arm movements -Ensuring that physical abilities tests do not violate human rights legislation requires basing such tests on job duties identified through job analysis and a physical demand analysis, ensuring that the tests duplicate the actual physical requirements of the job, developing and imposing such tests honestly and in good faith, ensuring that those administering the tests are properly trained and administer the tests in a consistent manner, and ensuring that testing standards are objectively related to job performance Measuring Personality and Interests -Personality tests- instruments used to measure basis aspects of personality, such as introversion, stability, motivation, neurotic tendency, self-confidence, self-sufficiency, and sociability -“Big Five personality dimensions” – extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and penned to experience -Conscientiousness showed a consistent relationship with all performance criteria for every occupation -Extroversion was a valid predictor of performance for managers and sales employees – the two occupations involving the most social interaction -Interest inventories- tests that compare a candidate’s interests with those of people in various occupations Achievement Tests -Achievement tests – tests used to measure knowledge or proficiency acquired through education, training, or experience -Measure knowledge or proficiency in such areas as economics, marketing, or HRM Work Sampling -Focus on measuring job performance directly and thus are among the best predictors of job performance -Experts first list all the possible tasks that jobholders would be required to perform Management Assessment Centres BU354 Chapter 7 – Selection Week 5 -Management assessment centre- a comprehensive, systematic procedure used to assess candidates’ management potential that uses a combination of realistic exercises, management games, objective testing, presentations, and interviews -Examples: 1. An in-basket exercise – Ex. Must write letters, return phone calls, etc. 2. A leaderless group discussion 3. Management games 4. Individual presentations 5. Objective tests – paper and pencil or computer based personality, aptitude, interest or achievement tests 6. An interview Situational Testing -Situational tests – tests in which candidates are presented with hypothetical situations representative of the job for which they are applying and
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