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Chapter 7

BU354 Chapter 7 - Selection.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Chet Robie

Chapter 7 – Selection The Strategic Importance of Employee Selection  Selection – the process of choosing among individuals who have been recruited to fill existing or projected job openings.  Whether considering current employees for a transfer or promotion or outside candidates for a first- time position with the firm, information about the applicants must be collected and evaluated  Selection begins when a pool of applicants has submitted their resumes or completed application forms as a result of recruiting process.  Strategic importance of selection: o More and more managers have realized that the quality of the company’s HR is often the single most important factor in determining whether the firm is going to survive and be successful in reaching the objectives specified in their plan. o Successful candidates must fit with the planning to expand internationally; language skills and international experience will become important selection criteria.  When a poor selection is made, the individual selected for the job isn’t capable of acceptable performance in the job. o When terminated, recruitment and selection process must begin all over again. o The hidden costs are frequently even higher, including internal disorganization and disruption and customer alienation  Legal implications: o Human rights legislation in every jurisdiction prohibits discrimination in all aspects, terms, and conditions of employment on such grounds as:  race, religion, creed, gender, age, marital status, disability, colour  firms must ensure that all their selection procedures are free of both intentional and systemic discrimination  Organizations required by law to implement an employment equity plan must ensure that all their employment systems are bias-free and don’t have an adverse impact on members of the designated groups o Employer liability for negligent or wrongful hiring:  When employees with unsuitable backgrounds are hired and subsequently engaged in criminal activities and are falling within the scope of their employment o Suggested guidelines for legal implications include:  1. Ensure that all selection criteria and strategies are based on the job description and the job specifications  2. Adequately assess the applicant’s ability to meet performance standards or expectations  3. Carefully scrutinize all information supplied on application forms and resumes  4. Obtain written authorization for reference checking from prospective employees, and check references carefully  5. Save all records and info obtained about the applicant during each stage of selection process  6. Reject applicants that make false statements on their application forms or resumes Supply Challenges  Certain vacant positions may be subject to a labour shortage (i.e. based on job requirements, location, work environment, etc.)  Other simultaneous vacant positions may be subject to labour surplus (i.e. due to external environments, training and education levels, immigration patterns, etc.)  Selection ratio – the ratio of the number of applicants hired to the total number of applicants  Small selection ratio may mean that there is a limited number of applicants selected or low-quality recruits. o If this is the case, start the recruitment process again, even if it means a hiring delay, rather than taking the risk of hiring an employee who will be a marginal performer at best  Large selection ratio may be indicative that : o the job ad is too vague, the organization’s HR team may need to automate screening process, o there is a need for more resources to find the right job candidate amongst the high number of applicants The Selection Process  multiple-hurdle strategy – an approach to selection involving a series of successive steps or hurdles o only candidates clearing a “hurdle” (selection techniques including pre-screening, testing, interviewing, etc.) are permitted to move on to the next step o clearing hurdle requires meeting or exceeding the min requirements established for the hurdle o only candidates who have cleared all hurdles remain in contention for the position at the time that the hiring decision is being made  to assess applicant’s potential for success on the job, organizations rely on a number of sources of info: o their sequence vary with the organization o the types of selection instruments and screening devices used are also not standardized across organizations o the number and sequence of steps often vary with the type and level of the job, as well as the source and method of recruitment o at each process, chosen selection criteria must be used to determine which applicants will move on the next step o it is through job analysis that the duties, responsibilities and human requirements for each job are identified o by basing on these requirements, firms can create a legally defensible hiring system o individuals hired after thorough screening against these criteria learn their jobs readily, are productive, and generally adjust to their jobs with a minimum of difficulty Selection Process:  designing effective selection process includes the following five steps: o 1) Decide who will be involved in the selection process and develop selection criteria:  Should be done before recruitment  Involves clarifying and weighting the info in the job description and job specifications and holding discussions among the interview-team members, especially those familiar with the job and co-workers o 2) Specify musts and wants and weight the wants.  Should be done before recruitment  Must criteria – those that are absolutely essential for the job, include a measurable standard of acceptability, or are absolute  Two types: o Specific level of education o Minimum amount of prior work experience  These can be initially screened, based on the applicants’ resumes  Want criteria – include skills and abilities that cannot be screened on paper (e.g. verbal skills) or are not readily measurable (i.e. leadership, teamwork skills, etc.), as well as qualifications that are desirable but not critical. o 3) Determine assessment strategies and develop an evaluation form.  For some qualifications, especially those that are critically important, the team may decide to use several assessment strategies  E.g. leadership skill  assessed through behavioural questions, situational questions, etc.  Once all want criteria have been agreed on and weighted, it becomes the basis for candidate comparison and evaluation. o 4) develop interview questions to be asked of all candidates  Questions should be developed for each KSA to be assessed during the interview  Job knowledge questions and work-requirements questions to gauge the applicants’ motivation and willingness to perform under prevailing working conditions o 5) develop candidate-specific questions  A few open-ended, job-related questions that are candidate specific should be planned, based on each candidate resume and application form Acquiring Employees and the Law  Potential employers cannot ask for a photograph, information about illnesses, disabilities or workers’ compensation claims, or information that could lead to direct, intentional discrimination, such as gender, sexual orientation, marital status, maiden name, age date of birth, place of origin, etc.  If the process collects any info that is considered a prohibited ground for discrimination, an unsuccessful candidate may challenge the legality of the entire recruitment and selection process.  Managing the process in a legally defensible way involves keeping the following guidelines to mind: o 1) Selection personnel cannot ask questions that would violate human rights legislations, either directly or indirectly. Cannot ask questions that would lead to personal stuff (e.g. marital status, childcare arrangements, ethnic background, etc.) o 2) All candidates must be treated in the same manner  Any agent of the organization cannot ask only female factory position applicants to demonstrate their lifting abilities, or question female sales applicants about their willingness to travel but not ask male candidates  Accommodation to disabled persons must be done o 3) Cutting short an interview based on preconceived notions about the gender or race of the “ideal” candidate must also be avoided o 4) Use “This job requires…” to focus on the job description and specifications to gather all the info required to assess applicants without infringing on their legal rights Step 1: Preliminary Applicant Screening  Initial application screening is done by HR department  Application forms and resumes are reviewed and eliminates first round of candidates that didn’t meet essential selection criteria  Remaining candidates are examined and those are the ones are looked closely to match job specifications  Almost all large firms or firms with high turnover use technological applications to help screen large number of candidates and generate short lists of individuals who will move on to the next step. Step 2: Selection Testing  Used to assess specific job-related skills as well as general intelligence, personality characteristics, mental abilities, interests, and preferences.  Testing techniques provide efficient, standardized procedures for screening large number of applicants The Importance of Reliability and Validity Reliability  Reliability – the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data overtime. The degree of dependability, consistency, or stability of the measures used.  Also refers to the extent to which two or more methods yield the same result or are consistent  Internal consistency – assess the degree to which responses to a criteria vary together  Reliability can be diminished when: o questions are answered randomly, o the test setting is noisy or uncomfortable, and o the applicant is tired or unwell Validity  validity – the accuracy with which a predictor measures what it is intended to measure o the extent to which data from a selection technique, such as a test or interview, are related to or predictive of subsequent performance on the job o separate validation techniques should be conducted for different subgroups o differential validity – confirmation that the selection tool accurately predicts the performance of all possible employee subgroups, including white males, women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, and Aboriginals  Three types of validity: o Criterion related validity – the extent to which a selection tool predicts or significantly correlates with important elements of work behaviour  predictive and concurrent  E.g. those who have strong sales ability on a test or in an interview also have high sales on the job, and those who do poorly on the test or interview have poor sales results. o Content validity – the extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform the job.  The closer the content of the selection instrument is to actual samples of work or work behaviour, the greater the content validity  E.g. asking a candidate for a secretarial position to demonstrate word processing skills. o Construct validity – the extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait deemed necessary to perform the job successfully.  Intelligence, verbal skills, analytical skills, and leadership skills are examples  Measuring this requires demonstrating that the psychological trait or attribute is related to satisfactory job performance  Also the test or other selection tool used accurately measures the psychological trait or attributes  Tests should be used as supplements to other techniques such as interviews and background checks o the test validated in the organization where they will be used; o a certified psychologist be used to choose, validate, administer, and interpret tests o private, quiet, well-lit, and well-ventilated settings be provided to all applicants taking the test Test and Cognitive Abilities 1. Intelligence Tests  IQ tests – measure general intellectual abilities, such as verbal comprehension, inductive reasoning, memory, numerical ability, speed of perception, spatial visualizations and word fluency.  general mental ability is the strongest general predictor of job performance at one’s chosen occupation  often measured with individually administered tests such as Stanford-Binet test or the Wechsler tests 2. Emotional intelligence Tests  EI tests – measures a person’s ability to monitor his or her own emotions and the emotions of others and to use that knowledge to guide thoughts and actions.  Someone with high EQ: o Self-motivated o Demonstrates empathy and social awareness o Self-aware o Can control their impulses  Can be an important determinant of success than a high IQ  Self-assessment EI tests include EQ-I, the EQ Map, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI, and the ECI which is a 360-degree assessment where several individuals evaluate on person to get a more complete picture of the individual’s emotional competencies 3. Specific Cognitive Abilities  Measures of specific thinking skills, such as inductive and deliberative reasoning, verbal comprehension, memory, and numerical ability  Aptitude tests – tests that measure an individual’s aptitude or potential to perfor
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