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Canada (156,115)
Psychology (1,862)
PS366 (37)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Todd Ferretti

Intro to LearningChapter 3Classical conditioning enables human and nonhuman animals to take advantage of the orderly sequence of events in environment to take appropriate actions in anticipation of what is about to happenThe early years of classical conditioning o Classical conditioning began by Pavlov o Also independently discovered by Edwin Twitmyer submitted in 1902Repeatedly tested kneejerk response by sounding a bell 05 seconds before hitting kneeBell was sufficient to elicit the kneejerk reflex o Pavlovs research was extension of research on process of digestionMade major advances in study of digestion by developing stomach fistulae that collects various digestive juicesSecretions could be used to study the mechanisms of association learning and functions of the nervous system o The discoveries of Vulfson and SnarskiiFirst systematic studies of classical conditioning performed by Volfson and Snarskii in Pavlovs laboratoryFocused on salivary glandsAfter dogs were exposed to food in the mouth enough times the sight of the drugs was enough to make them salivateSubstances produce distinctive texture and taste sensations in the mouthOrosensory stimuliDog learns to associated visual feature of substance with its orosensory featuresObject learningassociation of one feature of an object with anotherTo study associative learningstimuli have to be manipulated independently of one another o Classical conditioning paradigmPavlovs basic study involved two stimuliTone or lightFood or sour solutionConditioned Stimulustone or lightConditioned responsesalivation that was elicited by the lightUnconditioned stimulusthe food substancesUnconditional responsesalivation elicited by foodExperimental situations o Fear conditioningWatson and Rayner investigated the conditioning of emotional reactionsAssumed there was a simple method by means of which range of stimuli which can induce emotions Conditioned fear response in Albert to the presence of a white lab ratPresenting rat to Albert and then associating that with the sound of a metal bar being hit by a hammer o After 2Albert did not want to touch the rat o By 7showed strong fear responseConditioned fear generalized to all furry thingsFear and anxiety sources of considerable human discomfort and can lead to serious psychological and behavioural problemsRats show their fear by freezing animals that arent moving are not easily seen by predatorsImmobility of body and absence of movement of whiskersConditioned suppressionSuppression of ongoing behaviourTwo more measures of immobilityLicksuppression procedure 1
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