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Topic 4.doc

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2400
Julia Richardson

Topic 4- Chapter 3 - Organizational commitment is the desire of an employee to remain a member of the firm (Voluntary and Involuntary) - Withdrawal behavior is a set of actions that employees perform to avid the work station - Affective Commitment: emotional attachment to the organization (you want) - Continuance commitment: an employees desire to remain a member of a firm due to the awareness of the costs of leaving - Normative commitment: remaining a member due to a feeling of obligation - Focus of Commitment: people, places, and things that inspire someone to remain a member of the firm - Withdrawal behavior: 1) Exit: ends or restricts firms membership 2) Voice: constructive action in which person attempts to improve the situation 3) Loyalty: one publicly supports the situation but privately hopes for improvement 4) Neglect: ones interest and effort decline (sometimes more costly than exit 5) Psychological withdrawal: consist of actions that provide a mental escape from the work environment (lights are on but nobody’s home) 6) Daydreaming” employee appears to be working but is actually distracted by random thoughts 7) Socializing: verbal chatting on non work topics 8) Looking busy: intentional desire to look like they are working but they are not 9) Moonlighting: using work time and resources to complete other tasks 10) Cyberloafitng: using internet email and messaging for personal enjoyment - Physical Withdrawal: actions that provide a physical escape like tardiness, long breaks, missing meetings, absenteeism (do not show up for an entire day of work), quitting Forms of Withdrawal 1) Independent forms model: various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated 2) Compensatory forms model: negatively correlate with one another (doing one means you’re less likely to do another (employee wont be absent because they cyberloaf) 3) Progression model: withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated leading to a tendency of being absent or quitting - Behaviors that move from left (day dreaming) to right (quitting) tend to be more highly correlated to withdrawal behaviors (ex. Someone who is absenteeism is more likely to quit then someone who is cyber loafing) Trends affecting Commitment - Diversity is an increased trend visible in the workplace making up 1/3 of the workforce - As work groups are more diverse there is a danger that minorities will find themselves on the fringe on networks which will ultimately reduce their commitment - Foreign born employees are likely to feel less embedded in the community -Employee-Employee Relations - Downsizing is a form of involuntary turn over - Studies show downsizing actually harms firm’s profitability and stock price - Employees who do not get laid off suffer from survivor syndrome - It is depression fear and guilt, which reduces, firms commitment at the worst time for many reasons - They are asked to work extra hard, they lose employees social networks - Psychological contracts (what employees owe the firm, and what the firm owes them) are seen as breached -Transactional contracts are a focus on monetary obligations (employee owes attendance and firm owes money) - Relational contracts are subjective and open ended (employee owes loyalty and work ethic and firm owes job security and support) Applying Commitment Initiatives -Perceived organizational support: is the degree which employees believe the firm values their contributions, firms can illustrate this by rewards, job security, improving work conditions/ergonomics, and minimizing impact of politics - From affective commitment (emotion based) firms can increase employee bonds by encouraging interactions, offering personal growth and achievement - From Continuance (financial) they can create a financial need to stay like a benefits package, promotions, and advancements - From Normative (ought/owe) they can provide training and opportunities to create a sense of obligation Topic 4- Chapter 4 Job Satisfaction: a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job/job experiences - if employees are satisfied, positive emotions will allow them to perform better and remain with the company for longer - Employees are satisfied based on their Values (things that people want to seek or attain) - The Value-Percept theory argues that job satisfaction depends on what the job supple relative to what they value (VPT= want- have X importance) - Pay Satisfaction is how employees feel about their pay, they determine value by comparing to others and their duties and the pay given - Promotion Satisfaction: Are employee’s feelings about how the company handles advancements - Supervisor Satisfaction: is employees feelings about there boss (lazy, competent, polite, communication) through 1) can they help me attain the things I value, and 2) if they are likeable - Co-worker Satisfaction: employee’s feelings bout their coworkers if they are smart responsible, fun, and helpful - Satisfaction with work: how employees feel about their work, since ¾ of work time is spent on work, job satisfaction depends on if you like what you do. - Job Satisfaction of the work itself depends on: - Meaningfulness of work (if the work actually counts for something) this depends on variety (if there is different routine), identity (identifiable piece of work), and significance (if it impacts others) - Respons
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