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Chapter 7

ADMS 2600 Chapter 7 notes.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 2600
Sung Kwon

Chapter 7: Training and Development The Scope of Training training - describe almost any effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members - tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns development - tends to be oriented more toward broadening an individual's skills for future responsibilities training and development - combination of activities organizations use to increase the skill base of employees Investments in Training - an organization's revenues and overall profitability are positively correlated to the amount of training it gives its employees - four times the amount spent on formal training is spent on informal instruction Training statistics from the Conference Board of Canada's Learning and Development Outlook 2011:  Canadian businesses spend about $688 per employee on training  The average number of hours per employee in training is 25  Training of managers is done by 90 percent of organizations surveyed A Strategic Approach to Training goals of training - to improve organizational performance - development of leaders - aligning business and learning objectives if fads, fashions, or ―whatever the competition is doing‖ are the main drivers of an organization's training agenda - training programs are misdirected, poorly designed, inadequately evaluated, and a waste of money strategic approach to training - ensures that a firm's training and development investment has the maximum impact possible Strategic Model of Training Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment Signs that’s a company’s training is inadequate:  If employees consistently fail to achieve their productivity objectives  if organizations receive an excessive number of customer complaints chief learning officers - top executives within their firms who are responsible for making certain that a company's training is timely and focused on the firm's top strategic issues Needs Assessment for Training Organization Analysis - examination of the environment, strategies, and resources the firm faces so as to determine what training it should emphasize Examination of environment and firm’s strategies  mergers and acquisitions frequently require that employees take on new roles and responsibilities and adjust to new cultures and ways of conducting business  technological change, globalization, and quality improvements influence the way work is done and the types of skills needed to do it  restructuring, downsizing, or undertaking new employee empowerment or teamwork initiatives will impact the firm's training requirements  economic and public policy issues Examination of firm's resources (technological, financial, and human) - HR personnel typically collect data such as information on their companies’ direct and indirect labour costs, quality of goods or services, absenteeism, turnover, and number of accidents - availability of potential replacements and the time required to train them - firms have become more focused on efficiently using their training budgets to cope with budget constraints while continuing to meet their strategic imperatives Task Analysis - involves reviewing the job description and specifications to identify the activities performed in a particular job and the KSAOs needed to perform them Steps in task analysis  list all the tasks or duties included in the job  list the steps performed by the employee to complete each task  define (1) the type of performance required (such as speech, recall, discrimination, and manipulation), along with (2) the skills and knowledge necessary to do it Example: Task: taking a chest x-ray steps: radiologist correctly positions the patient (manipulation), gives special instructions (speech), and checks the proper distance of the x-ray tube from the patient (discrimination) work-oriented task analysis - types of skills and knowledge that trainees need can be determined by observing and questioning skilled jobholders and/or by reviewing job descriptions to help trainers select program content and choose the most effective training methods competency assessment - focuses on the sets of skills and knowledge employees need to be successful, particularly for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs - goes beyond simply describing the traits an employee must have to successfully perform the work - captures elements of how those traits, which might include an employee's motivation levels, personality traits, and interpersonal skills, should be used within an organization's context and culture - more flexible and perhaps have more durability than work-oriented task analysis Person Analysis - involves determining which employees require training and, equally important, which do not - helps organizations avoid the mistake of sending all employees into training when some do not need it - helps managers determine what prospective trainees are able to do when they enter training so that the programs can be designed to emphasize the areas in which they are deficient - performance appraisal information as an input for person analysis might reveal which employees are not meeting the firm's expectations, but typically do not reveal why Notes on Rapid Needs Assessment 1. Look at the problem scope - small, local matters may require less information gathering than big problems with a major impact on the organization 2. Do organizational scanning - stay connected with what is going on in the organization in order to anticipate upcoming training needs 3. Play “give and take” - get the information you need, but don't drag your feet with excessive analysis before reporting back to managers 4. Check “lost and found” - performance data (such as errors, sales, and customer complaints) and staffing data (such as proficiency testing, turnover, and absenteeism) can be very helpful as a starting point 5. Use plain talk - (1) identify the problem, (2) identify alternative ways to get there, (3) implement a solution based on cost/benefit concerns, and (4) determine the effectiveness and efficiency of the solution 6. Use the Web - IT allows you to communicate with others, perhaps by setting up an electronic mailing list to post questions, synthesize responses, share resources, get feedback, gather information on trends, and the like 7. Use rapid prototyping - create a rapid prototype of a training program, evaluating and revising as you implement, and learn more about the problems 8. Seek out exemplars - let the exemplars share their experiences and insights to avoid the risk of packaging the wrong information, and people learn just what they need to know from each other Phase 2: Designing the Training Program Design of training programs should focus on at least four related issues: 1. the training's instructional objectives 2. the ―readiness‖ of trainees and their motivation 3. principles of learning 4. the characteristics of instructors Instructional Objectives - describe the skills or knowledge to be acquired and/or the attitudes to be changed - performance-centred objective o widely used because it lends itself to an unbiased evaluation of the results o typically includes precise terms, such as ―to calculate,‖ ―to repair,‖ ―to adjust,‖ ―to construct,‖ ―to assemble,‖ and ―to classify‖ o i.e., the stated objective for one training program might be that ―employees trained in team methods will be able to perform the different jobs of their team members within six months‖ Trainee Readiness and Motivation trainee readiness - refers to whether or not the experience of trainees has made them receptive to the training that they will receive - prospective trainees should be screened to ensure that they have the background knowledge and the skills necessary to absorb what will be presented to them - recognizing the individual differences of trainees in terms of their readiness is as important in organizational training as it is in any other teaching situation - often desirable to group individuals according to their capacity to learn, as determined by test scores or other assessment information, and to provide alternative types of instruction for those who need it - receptiveness and readiness of participants in training programs can be increased by having them complete questionnaires about why they are attending training and what they hope to accomplish as a result - participants can also be asked to give copies of their completed questionnaires to their managers trainee motivation - organization needs to help employees understand the link between the effort they put into training and the payoff - by focusing on the trainees themselves, managers can create a training environment that is conducive to learning - training objectives should be clearly related to trainees’ individual needs to succeed - allowing employees to undergo training in areas that they want to pursue rather than merely assigning them certain training activities can also be very motivating—so can enlisting employees to train other employees with the information they learn Principles of Learning psychological principles of learning - the characteristics of training programs that help employees grasp new material, make sense of it in their own lives, and transfer it back to their jobs Goal Setting - when trainers take the time to explain the training's goals and objectives to trainees—or when trainees are encouraged to set goals on their own—the level of interest, understanding, and effort directed toward the training is likely to increase - can simply take the form of a ―road map‖ of the course/program, its objectives, and its learning points Meaningfulness of Presentation - material to be learned should be presented in as meaningful a manner as possible - trainees will be better able to learn new information if they can connect it with things already familiar to them - material should be arranged so that each experience builds on preceding ones so that trainees are able to integrate the experiences into a usable pattern of knowledge and skills Modelling - increases the salience of behavioural training through learning by watching - demonstrates the desired behaviour or method to be learned - modelling the wrong behaviour can be helpful by clarifying the appropriate behavior Individual Differences - training programs should try to account for and accommodate individual differences to facilitate each person's style and rate of learning Active Practice and Repetition - trainees should be given frequent opportunities to practise their job tasks in the way that they will ultimately be expected to perform them - value of practice is that it causes behaviours to become second nature Whole-versus-Part Learning - determining the most effective manner for completing each part provides a basis for giving specific instruction - if the task can be broken down successfully, it probably should be broken down to facilitate learning; otherwise, it should probably be taught as a unit Massed-versus-Distributed Learning - spacing out the training will result in faster learning and longer retention Feedback and Reinforcement feedback - can help individuals focus on what they are doing right and what they are doing wrong - plays an important motivational role behaviour modification - technique that operates on the principle that behaviour that is rewarded—positively reinforced—will be exhibited more frequently in the future, whereas behaviour that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency - a person's behaviour can be motivated and gradually shaped toward what managers desire when he or she exhibits positive behaviours and is rewarded for them - verbal encouragement or more tangible rewards, such as prizes, awards, and ceremonies, can help reinforce the behaviour firms desire of trainees over time as well as help them get over plateaus they might experience spot rewards programs - encouragement is most effective when it is given immediately - award employees ―on the spot‖ when they do something particularly well during training or on the job - awards can consist of cash, gift cards, time off, or anything else employees value Characteristics of Instructors 1. Knowledge of subject - employees expect trainers to know their job or subject thoroughly and are expected to demonstrate that knowledge 2. Adaptability - instruction should be matched to the trainee's learning ability 3. Sincerity - trainees appreciate sincerity in trainers; trainers need to be patient with trainees and demonstrate tact in addressing their concerns 4. Sense of humour - learning can be fun; very often a point can be made with a story or anecdote 5. Interest - good trainers have a keen interest in the subject they are teaching 6. Clear instructions - training is accomplished more quickly and retained longer when trainers give clear instructions 7. Individual assistance - successful trainers always provide individual assistance 8. Enthusiasm - a dynamic presentation and a vibrant personality show trainees that the trainer enjoys training Phase 3: Implementing the Training Program Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees  On-the-Job Training  Apprenticeship Training  Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training  Classroom Instruction  Programmed Instruction (self-directed learning)  Audiovisual Methods  Simulation Method  E-Learning  Learning Management Systems On-the-Job Training - most common method used for training nonmanagerial employees (80-90 percent of employee learning) - advantage of providing hands-on experience under normal working conditions and an opportunity for the trainer— a manager or senior employee—to build good relationships with new employees - viewed by some to be potentially the most effective means of facilitating learning in the workplace - often one of the most poorly implemented training methods Three common drawbacks of OJT: 1. the lack of a well-structured training environment 2. poor training skills on the part of managers 3. the absence of well-defined job performance criteria To overcome these problems, training experts suggest the following: 1. Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each OJT area. 2. Plan a specific training schedule for each trainee, including set periods for evaluation and feedback. 3. Help managers establish a nonthreatening atmosphere conducive to learning. 4. Conduct periodic evaluations after training is completed to prevent regression. The Proper Way to Do On-the-Job Training  Prepare o Decide what employees need to be taught o Identify the best sequence or steps of the training o Decide how best to demonstrate these steps o Have materials, resources, and equipment ready  Reassure o Put each employee at ease o Learn about his or her prior experience, and adjust accordingly o Try to get the employee interested, relaxed, and motivated to learn  Orient o Show the employee the correct way to do the job o Explain why it is done this way o Discuss how it relates to other jobs o Let him or her ask lots of questions  Perform o When employees are ready, let them try the job themselves o Give them an opportunity to practice the job and guide them through rough spots o Provide help and assistance at first, then less as they continue  Evaluate o Check employees’ performance, and question on how, why, when, and where they should do something o Correct errors; repeat instructions  Reinforce and Review o Provide praise and encouragement, and give feedback about how the employee is doing o Continue the conversation and express confidence in his or her doing the job Apprenticeship Training - individuals entering an industry, particularly in skilled trades such as machinist, laboratory technician, and electrician, are given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job - originated in Europe as part of its guild system - programs involve cooperation between organizations and their labour unions, between industry and government, or between organizations and local school systems - apprentice is paid 50 percent of a skilled journey worker's wage to start with, but the wage increases at regular intervals as the apprentice's job skills increase - journey workers earn as much as post-secondary graduates, and some earn more Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training cooperative training programs - combine practical on-the-job experience with formal classes - typically used in connection with high school and college programs that incorporate part- or full-time experiences - increased effort to expand opportunities that combine on-the-job skill training with regular classroom training so that students can pursue either technical work or a college degree program internship programs - jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and a variety of organizations - offer students the chance to get real-world experience while finding out how they will perform at work - organizations benefit by getting student–employees with new ideas, energy, and eagerness to accomplish their assignments - many universities and community colleges allow students to earn credits on the basis of successful job performance and fulfillment of established program requirements Steps firms can take to increase the effectiveness of their internships: 1. Assign the intern to projects that are accomplishable and provide training as required. 2. Appoint a mentor or supervisor to guide the intern. 3. Solicit project suggestions from other staff members. 4. Rotate interns throughout the organization. 5. Treat interns as part of the organizational staff and invite them to staff meetings. 6. Establish a process for considering interns for permanent hire. Classroom Instruction - enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors - lends itself particularly well to what is called blended learning - lectures and demonstrations are combined with films, DVDs, videotapes, or computer instruction - still the number one training method Programmed Instruction (self-directed learning) - particularly good for allowing individuals to work at their own pace - involves the use of books, manuals, or computers to break down subject matter content into highly organized, logical sequences that demand a continual response on the part of the trainee - major advantage is that it incorporates a number of the established learning principles - training is individualized
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