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Chapter 5

ADMS 3410 Chapter 5.docx

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Administrative Studies
ADMS 3410
Eytan Lasry

ADMS 3410 Chapter 5- Training Design Training Objective  A training objective refers to a statement of what trainees are expected to be able to do after a training program  Training objectives also describe the knowledge and skills to be acquired  Training objectives usually refer to the acquisition of knowledge and or skills as well as behaviour on the job Writing Training Objectives  A training objective should contain 5 elements 1. Who is to perform the desired behaviour? Employees and managers are the easiest to identify. The goal of the instructor is to maximize the efficiency with which all trainees achieve the specified objectives, not just present the information 2. What is the actual behaviour to be employed to demonstrate mastery of the training content or objective? Actions described by words like “type”, “run”, and “calculate” can be measured easily. Other mental activities such as comprehension and analysis can also be described in measurable ways 3. Where, and, (4), when is the behaviour to be demonstrated and evaluated (i.e. under what conditions)? These could include “during a 60-minute typing test,” “on a ski hill with icy conditions,” when presented with a diagram,” or “when a asked to design a training session” 5. What is the standard by which the behaviour will be judged? Is the trainee expected to type 60 words per minute with fewer than three errors? Can the trainee list five out of six purposes for training objective?  Training objectives should resemble the task analysis  The final written objective should contain three key components: 1. Performance: what the trainee will be able to do after the training. In other words, what work behaviour the trainee will be able to display 2. Condition- The tools, time and situation under which the trainee is expected to perform the behaviour. In other words, where and when the behaviour will occur 3. Criterion: The level of acceptable performance or the standard or criteria against which performance will be judged Purchase or Design Decision  Once the training objective have been developed, the organization faces make-or-purchase decision.  Organizations are likely to purchase training programs that do not require organization specific content and are of a more generic nature  The advantage of packed programs are high quality, immediate delivery, ancillary services (tests, videos), the potential to customize the package to the organization, benefits from others implementation experience, extensive testing, and often less expense than internally developed programs  Training programs developed internally by an organization also have some advantages including security and confidentiality, use of organizational language, incorporation of the organizations values, use of internal content expertise, understanding of the specific target audience and organization and the pride and credibility of having a customized program Purchase Decision Factors  The cost of each alternative is one of the most important facts  A cost benefit analysis would be necessary to determine the best option  For example the human resource department have the time and expertise to design a training program  Developing a training program is time consuming  Time is also a factor in terms of how soon the organization wants to begin training  The number of employees who need to be trained and the extent to which future employees will also require training  When talking about purchase new training programs it could mean buying particular training materials such as video-packaging or buying an entire training program  Organizations can buy off-the-shelf training programs which are already designed and that contain all the materials required to deliver a training program  When an organization decides to purchase a training program, it needs to begin the process of finding a vendor or consultant who will be able to design and/ or deliver the program Request For Proposal (RFP)  RFP can be defined as a document that outlines to potential vendors and consultants an organizations training and project needs  Vendors and consultants review the RFP and determine if they are able to provide the products and services required by the organization and if they should prepare a proposal and bid on the job  The organization must evaluate the proposals it receives and choose a vendor that can provide the best solution and is also good match for the organization  A request for proposal should provide detailed information about the organizations training needs and the nature of the project and will often include the following sections: Prequalification checklist, detailed description of the opportunity, description of the company and its culture, scope of the project, detailed statement of work, detailed instructions on how to respond to the RFP, schedule for the entire RFP and selection process with milestones, basis of the award, definition of the level of service required, and confidentiality agreements  Creating an RFP is an important step in searching for a vendor because it requires the organization to describe its most critical training needs and the nature of the training solution required.  Failure to prepare a detailed RFP can result in an organizations purchasing a program that it really does not need at a much higher cost Training Content  Once a decision has been made to design a training program, decisions must be made about the training content.  The training content must be based on the training needs and objectives  A trainer will have a good idea about the required training content from the needs analysis and training objectives  A Subject matter expert (SME) refers to a person who is familiar with the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform a task or job Training methods  Training methods can be arranged into a number of different categories such as active versus passive methods, one-way versus two-way communication, or methods in terms of where they take place, since this is a fairly tangible distinction.  There are on the job training methods such as coaching, and performance aids, and off job training methods, and technology based training methods such as e-learning  Research shows that learning and retention are the best achieved through the use of training methods that promote productive responses from trainees  Productive responses are those in which the trainee actively uses the training content rather than passively watches, listens, or imitates the trainer.  Trainees are required to solve real-world problems facing the company  Blended training is the use of a combination of approaches to training such as classroom training on-the-job training and computer technology Active Practice  Practice refers to physical or mental rehearsal of a task, skill, or knowledge in order to achieve some level of proficiency in performing the task or skill or demonstrating the knowledge  Active practice refers to providing trainees with opportunities to practice performing a training task or using knowledge during training  Conditions of practice refers to the practice conditions that are implemented before and during training to enhance the effectiveness of active practice and maximize learning and retention Prepractice Conditions  Attentional advice refers to providing trainees with information about the task process and general task strategies that can help them learn and
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