Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,366)
York University (12,903)
HRM 3450 (16)
Ron Ophir (16)

Sex and Gender

5 Pages

Human Resources Management
Course Code
HRM 3450
Ron Ophir

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Chapter 9 Key Points • In many countries, women make up more than half of the population and about half of the workforce. • Women working fulltime, earn less than 80 cents to the dollar earned by men working fulltime. • The gap in earnings of younger men and older women is considerably smaller than the gap in earnings between older men and older women. • Women and men who deviate from gender norms are penalized in society and organizations. • 16% of men are sexually harassed, but those who report it are generally not taken seriously Sex  biological • Males have XY chromosomes • Females have XX chromosomes • Some people have different combinations of chromosomes Gender  perceptions of how men and women should behave Relevant Legislation Legislation relevant to sex and gender at work include: • The Equal Pay Act of 1963  Attempted to address overt sex-based pay disparities • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964  Prohibited discrimination against women in employment  Hiring, firing, promotions and other employment matters • Executive orders for affirmative action  Requires certain employers to take active efforts to ensure women had equal opportunity to work • The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 • EEOC Guidelines on Sexual Harassment of 1980 • The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993  Provides job security while allowing women and men to take time off for family needs and to be assured a job afterward.  Women with children earn less than women without children  Men who wish to participate in family care are often perceived as violating their gender roles • The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009  States that each pay check that delivers discriminatory compensation restarts the 180-day clock for filing a claim  Women who are unaware of pay discrimination have more time to file a claim, once they find out about the discrimination Sex Segregation • Occurs when members of one sex constitute 70% or more of the incumbents in a job or occupation.  Women tend to work with other women  Men tend to work with other men  72% of women are employed in four occupational groups:  Administrative support  Professional specialty  Service workers  Executive, administrative and managerial positions  Male dominated occupations include:  Protective services  police, fire-fighters  Crafts  carpenters, electricians, plumbers  Transport  truck, bus, taxi drivers  Working in a male-dominated job positively affects one’s income (both men and women)  Working in a female-dominated job negatively affects one’s income (both men and women)  Even though women working in male-dominated jobs earn more than women working in female-dominated job, women in male-dominated jobs still earn less than men in these jobs.  When men are employed in female-dominated jobs, their average earnings are higher than women working in these jobs Gender Role Socialization • The process by which social institutions, including families, friends, organization and the media, form and shape expectations of acceptable behaviours for men and women.  One of the reasons for:  Sex discrimination  Women’s lower wage levels  Sex segregation  Other unequal gender based treatment  Children learn that appropriate jobs for women are: o Elementary school teachers o Nurses o Secretarial work  Jobs that involve nurturing, care and support o Gender steering  Women steered to female dominated roles  Hotel maid, secretary  Men steered to male dominated roles, where more money is earned and there is more chance of advancement  Trainee manager  Park cars, carry luggage (tips) Sex Discrimination Disparate treatment  occurs when an applicant or employee, typically a woman, is intentionally treated differently than males are treated. • Requirements for a particular sex may be legitimate when sex is a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ). Disparate or adverse impact  occurs when an employer’s apparently neutral policy or practice negatively affects a person’s (typically women’s) employment opportunities. • Height and weight requirements, that rule out women who are generally smaller and shorter than men. • Even though height and weight requirements are not discriminatory, employers must ensure that they are truly related to successful job performance.  Police officers  Fire fighters Sexua
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