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HIST 1001-B Jan 24,2013.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Jan 24, 2013 Lecture 24 – Napoleon and Congress of Vienna Directory (1795 – 1799) Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 – 1821) Concordat of 1801 Civil Code (aka Napoleonic Code) (1804) Third Coalition (1805) (Britain, Russia, Sweden, and Austria) Trafalgar (1805) Continental System (1806) Austerlitz (1805) Treaty of Tilsit (1807) Fourth Coalition (1813) (Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria) Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) The 100 Days (March-June 1815) Battle of Waterloo (1815) Congress of Vienna (Oct. 1814-June 1815) Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) Viscount Castlereagh (1769-1822) Charles Talleyrand (1754-1838) Holy Alliance (1815) (Russia, Prussia, Austria) Nationalism • French revolutions started as a dispute between the Nobles and the King about sharing power • But ended up being more important, a war with two forces, the middle class commoners, the Bourgeois versus the desires of the poor for economic security, driving the revolution forward • Tension between the bourgeois and the poor in the future • Revolution in France accomplished a few things, power came from the people • Accomplished the political empowerment of the bourgeois • Accomplished idea of the destruction of the idea of the king as the ruler of divine right • Revolution resulted in distribution of land to peasants • End of feudal obligation by people • Among the poor, there is a wedge driven between interest of the peasants, who normally want land of their own and to be left alone • Once they get that, they tend to lose whatever revolutionary order they had • Working class peasants have a different agenda • There is a conflict between rural peasants and urban working poor people • The revolution had not resulted in a radical distribution of wealth • No change in the basic economic system • The poor in france were still poor, the rich were still rich, social inequality was not destroyed by the revolution • Women still remained second class citizens with fewer rights than men • Terror of second phase of revolution, upheaval and uncertainty exhausted the French • Reaction set in, in the 1790s, people were less interested in change and more interested in peace and stability • Supported creation of a 5 man directory in 1795 to lead the country • Did not rise up when it became a dictatorship in 1799 • What happened in france scared the rulers of other nations, which were identical to France before the revolution • Others were run by hereditary monarchs • Middle class commoners became main force in Europe • Most were not nations, not countries with one group of people with a common religion or culture, kingdoms of Europe made of many different people ruled over by kings, queen’s etc • Idea of revolutions spreading idea of equality and nationalism left European monarchs scared because if those ideas were brought to their kingdoms, could mean the lost of their power • Period from 1792-1814, European nations worked together • Napoleon Bonaparte was born on island of Corsica to a poor Noble family • As a Corsican, he had no love to France, still does not love France, strong Corsican identity • Napoleon ended up serving in France’s revolutionary armies • Joined artillery because no one else wanted him • He joined the radical Jacobins • They provided him with opportunities to advance • He was a self-started, took command over the armies in Austria • Returned to France afterwards and joined a conspiracy to overthrow the 5 man directory which had brought stability to france after the revolution • The problem with conspiracy’s point of view was that it was not dictatorial enough • 10 years left many in France craving stability and strong rule • Became emperor of life in dec. of 1804 • Napoleon had two main subject, first to impose order at home and second to continue his military adventures abroad • Needed to first impose order in France, legal and administrative reforms • Use of political repression • He made deals with powerful French groups and won over the middle class, by instituting the civil legal code, in 1804, the Napoleonic code • Legal system that treated everyone the same and protected their rights • Versus English Common law system • Napoleon also made peace with the peasants by showing them that that land that they got would not be taken away • Napoleon strike a deal with the Clergy and the church • In 1801, the government had power to appoint high level clergy men in the church • He created public school so that children who wanted to go to school would not have to go to catholic schools • He succeeded in creating a modern, centralized and national state • Far cry from decentralized feudal state • Further cemented the idea of a French state under one state, one government, one law • His reforms helped create idea of what a modern nation is • Napoleon also used repression to keep stability • Would resort to the carrot and the stick, bribe with carrot and if not, hit with the stick • Those who questioned napoleon’s rule could be banished, imprisoned and some were executed when they were in Napoleon’s way, but did not create a terror state • He offered a lot of people in France things that they wanted • His focus was to continue war and conquest in Europe • Know that Napoleon feared any sign of weakness on his part, had to become emperor through strength of his personality • Rightly feared that any sign of weakness on his part would signal that he was vulnerable • He was incredible and great at creating war • For 15 years, his army was unbeatable on land in Europe • He was striking terror on those who were in Europe • Everywhere that his army went, they brought the idea of the revolution with them • Though he made peace with everyone in 1802, he made war with Europe again • In 1805, the French suffered a terrible Navel defeat at a place called Trafalgar, it was a
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