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HIST 1001 Lecture Notes - Henry Hyndman, Working Class Man, Working Class Culture

Course Code
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

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HIST 1001B March 5, 2013
Socialism in Germany and England
Class Consciousness
Paris Commune (1871(; Communards
Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)
German Workingman’s Association (1863)
State socialism
August Bebel (1840-1913)
Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826-1900)
Social Democratic Party(SDP) (1869)
Gotha Congress (1875)
Erfurt Congress (1891)
Henry Hyndman (1842-1921)
Social Democratic Federation
The Fabian Society (1884)
Trade Union Congress
Keir Harrdie (1856-1915)
Independent Labour Party (ILP) (1893)
British Labour Party (1900)
The rise of socialism in Germany and in England
Two countries where Industrial revolution proceeded most swiftly and comprehensively
See the rise of socialism in these industrial power houses
Talked revolution, but worked within German state and german political system to gain
benefits for their workers, things like national health insurance, workers compensation
Part of socialist agenda, acquired by political organization in the system
On eve of WWI, socialist power was the largest power, succeeded in gaining real
benefits for ordinary men and women
By second half of 19th century in England, political reforms extended vote to most men in
Conservatives and Liberals were dominated by aristocrats
Majority of working men have vote, but no political home for them
In Germany, new political party had to be developed to serve interest
Like Lasalle, Hyndman, would lecture workers on street in Latin, he converted to

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Began to attract middle class people to his party, the Social Democrat Federation, failed
in the vote, but he turned on British intellectuals to socialist political thought
Another source of socialist thought were Fabians who did not want a socialist party but
wanted to work in the existing political system to win gains for the middle class working
Use research and published reports to document the lives of English working class
These are middle class people working for middle class people
Workers demanded they be led by people
Animosity between working class and middle class, working class always worried that
the middle class would sell them out to the aristocrats
Workers wanted to be led by workers in the labouring classes
The leaders of the labouring classes had come from skilled trade
Leadership of working class came from the labour aristocracy
Skilled workers that knock at the door of middle class respectability
Liberal party let them have a few seats, known as ‘lib-labs”, liberal labourers
Skilled labourers who seek to represent the middle class look down on unskilled
labouring class
Unskilled had less security, more replicable, made less money, etc
Developed their own working class culture, unskilled had no aspirations to rise up and
enter middle class
Organized themselves into various trade unions, like match girls, coal miners, etc. They
were under an umbrella organization called Trade Union Congress
TUC was slow to realize it needed to organize politically rather than just doing collective
In the 1890s, realized that if they did not become active in politics, they would get
By 1900, TUC began to take political action, started running for seats
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