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HIST 1001-B March 5 ,2013.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST 1001B March 5, 2013 Socialism in Germany and England Class Consciousness Paris Commune (1871(; Communards Socialism Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864) German Workingman’s Association (1863) State socialism August Bebel (1840-1913) Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826-1900) Social Democratic Party(SDP) (1869) Gotha Congress (1875) Erfurt Congress (1891) Henry Hyndman (1842-1921) Social Democratic Federation The Fabian Society (1884) Lib-Labs Trade Union Congress Keir Harrdie (1856-1915) Independent Labour Party (ILP) (1893) British Labour Party (1900) • The rise of socialism in Germany and in England • Two countries where Industrial revolution proceeded most swiftly and comprehensively • See the rise of socialism in these industrial power houses • Talked revolution, but worked within German state and german political system to gain benefits for their workers, things like national health insurance, workers compensation • Part of socialist agenda, acquired by political organization in the system • On eve of WWI, socialist power was the largest power, succeeded in gaining real benefits for ordinary men and women • By second half of 19 century in England, political reforms extended vote to most men in England • Conservatives and Liberals were dominated by aristocrats • Majority of working men have vote, but no political home for them • In Germany, new political party had to be developed to serve interest • Like Lasalle, Hyndman, would lecture workers on street in Latin, he converted to socialism • Began to attract middle class people to his party, the Social Democrat Federation, failed in the vote, but he turned on British intellectuals to socialist political thought • Another source of socialist thought were Fabians who did not want a socialist party but wanted to work in the existing political system to win gains for the middle class working people • Use research and published reports to document the lives of English working class people • These are middle class people working for middle class people • Workers demanded they be led by people • Animosity between working class and middle class, working class always worried that the middle class would sell them out to the aristocrats • Workers wanted to be led by workers in the labouring classes • The leaders of the labouring classes had come from skilled trade • Leadership of working class came from the labour aristocracy • Skilled workers that knock at the door of middle class respectability • Liberal party let them have a few seats, known as ‘lib-labs”, liberal labourers • Skilled labourers who seek to represent the middle class look down on unskilled labouring class • Unskilled had less security, more replicable, made less money, etc • Developed their own working class culture, unskilled had no aspirations to rise up and enter middle class • Organized themselves into various trade unions, like match girls, coal miners, etc. They were under an umbrella organization called Trade Union Congress • TUC was slow to realize it needed to organize politically rather than just doing collective action • In the 1890s, realized that if they did not become active in politics, they would get nowhere • By 1900, TUC began to take political action, started running for seats • Cannot trust middle class liberals, in the end, they will always choose their own interest rather than the working class • Passed over Kier Harrdie, who wanted to run for a seat • Became first truly working class man to be elected in parliament, he founded the Independent Labour Party in 1893 • Socialist, fabians and TUC all joined together, various strands of socialism came together in the ILP • Sought an 8 hour day, votes for women, progressive income tax • Access to education for working people, women were welcome and often participated in ILP • They formed an exec. Committee in 1900s, they ran under the name of the British Labour Party • Liberal party pushed through some reforms, confronting the resurging middle class people • Enacts unemployment and healthcare in Healthcare • Liberals and Conservatives started to see eye to eye, the liberals started moving towards labour or conservative • Between 1933-1935, liberals went from 158-17 seat • 1924, James Ramsey McDonell became PM of England, he is first Labour leader • Socialist in Germany and England took different paths, but the theory of Marx gave way to practical thoughts • Workers were able to harness their great numbers and participate in politics in a way to force the government to respond • In the case of England, they actually became the government in power Imperialism Colonialism Social Darwinism Suttee (wife burning) Rudyard Kipling The White Man’s Burden (1899) George Orwell “
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