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HIST 1001-B March 21,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

March 21, 2013 – HIST 1001B Rise of Fascism in Italy and Germany Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Fascism (from Latin “fasces”) National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP “Nazis”) Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)) Weimar Republic (1918-1933) SA (Brownshirts) Ernst Rochm (1887-1934) Berlin Olympics (1936) Jesse Owens (1913-1980) Leni Riefenstsahl (1902-2003); Triumph of the Will(1935) Euthanasia (1939-1941) • Soviet Totalitarianism in Russia, place of old Authoritarian aristocratic regime • Totalitarian, total, Stalin was interested in building a totalitarian regime that had total control for government, no room for individual or party • Totalitarianism requires modern administrative state • Without it, it becomes impossible for one leader in the centre to control everything • Product of industrialism • From communism to Fascism, Assimilating masses into modern state • Workers and farmers are increasingly literate • Able to participate by virtue of universal suffrage • These ordinary people were assimilated into an ordinary democratic structure • Middle class bourgeois people create this new system • Goal of unification is not for a liberal democracy, it is to strengthen the hand of aristocratic bosses • In both Italy and Germany, alternatives to liberal democracy, focus on rights of individuals, both who have long experience with authoritarian government • Mussolini took power at the head of his fascist party • Mussolini in 1932 wrote that Fascism was anti-individualist, stresses importance of state, accepting the individual only so far as his interests get along with it • Fascism reasserts the right of the state • People exist to serve the state, not the other way around, was an ideology exactly opposite from liberalism (In fascism) • Fascism looked to super nationalism for power • Symbol of Roman Imperial theory • Ax, rod, bound by the constitutional limits of power (for liberals), but in Fascism does not, the bounds are taken off • Fascism looks to super nationalism, glorified Roman Empire, Roman Heritage and Italian peoples • Idea of struggle and competition • Fascist society needs the people in the constant state of agitation • Fascism, totalitarian, communism, requires an enemy, group based ideology, need to maintain tight ties, maintain group at all times • Fascism is tied to enemies, colonialism and conquest was natural, Italians waged war against Ethiopia, independent Empire in 1925, in 1936 finally subdued the nation • Although Italy was first to embrace Fascism, they would never reach the level of Germany • Refused to persecute their Jewish people anywhere near the level of Germans • Fascism reached its peak under Hitler • Hitler’s politics were based on two policies: ambition for world conquest and a pure race • Came into power with a lot of help from German people • Liberal democratic republic was created • Hitler known as the Vymar Republic • Reinland, which served between Germany and France was demilitarized • In 1920s, inflation was rampant, economy was crap • By late 1920s, economy improved and was moving towards a liberal democratic politics • Germany joined the community • Admitted to League of nations and in 1929, they agreed to get rid of war • Britain was eager to normalize trading with Germany • In 1929, worldwide depression, starting in America • Marxists dedicated to revolution and loyal to Stalin capitalized on hard economic times to win over the masses, capitalism does not work • Capitalism has failed, join us in creating a Marxist revolution • Soviet union could point to different things • This provides an alternative model for many people in Germany, France, England and America • Another group, called the Nazis sought to appeal to the masses • Beginning in the 1920s, Hitler built a stance towards socialist dictatorship, told the masses that the problems facing Germany were not their fault, they lost WWI because they were betrayed by the Jews • The communist and the Jews were at home stabbing the Germans in the back (What Hitler said) • Told Germans they were part of a master race by virtue of their racial superiority • Hitler said h
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