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HIST 2904 (27)

HIST 2905 January 28, 2014.docx

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HIST 2904
Greg Fisher

From Galba to Commodus Arabia continued •Major work in province • Roads forts •New capital: Bostra •Dating system: "Ed of Bostra" AD 110- Faced problems in Armenia - Parthians 114: Armenia captured -> province 115 -116=-1 new campaigns Mesopotamia -> province Trajan had gained confidence over the Parthians which lead to his aggressive campaign to gain mesopotamia Trajan in Mesopotamia Not without problems 114/5 - massive earthquake in Antioch (Syria) 115 - widespread Jewish revolt •Trajan is facing stability problems as well as a natural disaster •Everything was settled by 117 - Read -> Rome o Jewish were squashed and everything was being rebuilt •Trajan was not well, he died in Cilicia - adopted the next emperor, Hadrian •Trajan's legacy is bound up in the life of Alexander the Great o Alexander exercised successful life o Both Pompeii and Trojan looked towards Alexander the great o Romans gave Alexander the title of The great when they had their obsession with him • By 23, Alexander conquered the greatest amount of land ever • Spirit of Alexander great influence on Trajan as an example of what could be done with a good army and guts could do • Pull of conquest (maybe Pliny was wrong?) o Trajan was drawn into mission creek and the prospect of painting his name in glory Trajan's legacy Mesopotamia? Hadrian abandoned it Government? Pliny wrote this to the emperor: "Here is something that I hear for the firs ttime, that the emperor is not above the law, but that the law is above the emperor" o Implies that the autocracy of some of the judeo-claudians is gone and is being replaced by more liberal government o Along with marcus aurelius, he is seen as a model leader •Why these ideas? o Governmented with the senate o Life -> for office (duty) his office was his life's work, ingrained sense of duty that led him to do everything. He acted as pater, benefactor • Benevolent soldier king? • Pater is a father or benefactor to the state  Idea of kingship would be exercised in a large way by Marcus Aurelius, who will be used as an example of someone who gives his life to the state • Benevolent soldier king who works as a benevolent solider for the king • What he has and tried to teach as a teacher of the king • One step further o Trajan developed a new idea of kingship "Jovian" -> referring to Jupiter, the king of gods • Implied that Trajan had a close relationship with Jupiter o Sculpture: thunderbolt • Trajan had a sculpture with a thunderbolt  Suggests that he is the vice roy on earth of this divine power  He tries to make the relationship look as close as possible o Hugely important idea: Idea of government in state, universal in nature, one empire, one government, one king, all backed by gods or god o When the Roman empire goes Christian, Constantine will reinvent Rome as a Christian state backed by one GOD o Part of some of the ideas of the American Republic o Idea originates through some idea of the Trajans • Romans think that their empire is a world empire • Happens with Constantine • Under his idea, triggers a huge Christian idea • For Constantine, there is only one government and one God • Had a generally good legacy : are in an era of the 5 good emperors o Worked with senate o More provincials in government • See it with the emperors, Claudius, etc. o Used council of friends (cf. Alexander) • The nobles of the Roman state for whom he took advice from (Trajan) o Increased position of equestrians • Started by Augustus, the increasing trend of the middle class in the senate  He is seen as someone who will look at ideas, listen to the government and the republic • Had an amazing legacy: dazzled those later on o Those who came in later on could try to be better than Trajan or more fortunate than Augustus o If only one [could be] 'more fortunate than Augustus and better than Trajan' • Earned a lot of praise from contemporaries  Conquests - especially in E.  Buildings  Style of rule • Trajan died in 117 and now Hadrian o August 8, 117 -> official version - circumstaces are slightly murky • Says that he was adopted by Trajan with literally his last breath  But it looks like Trajan planned to adopt Hadrian as soon as possible • Hadrian was very close to Plotina (Trajan's wife)  Praetorian Prefect  Both were pro-Hadrian  Plotina was very active behind the scenes, much like Livia • Hadrian was marked out for a while (proof) o Only male relative close to Trajan that could have been a reasonable choice o Major post, in Syria • Under Trajan, frontier province in the war, close to the newly annexed province of Armenia o Career under Trajan's eye throughout, Trajan boosted his career • Good examples of emperors trying to deal with secession, by promoting their proteges and giving them plenty of experience • Had military careers and military works o Spanish - Jan 24, 76 o Senator • He was upper class, was acceptable o 118, Consul • He had proper training in the upper classes of the senate, acceptable to the senate o Fought with Trajan - Germania, Dacia, Mesopotamia • Was one of Trajan's officers, fought with Trajan and was accepted by the army • He held the position in Syria at the same time o Part of the council of friends • Trajan placed him in this, making him close enough to keep an eye on but gave further experience of working with emperor • Hadrian the person o Historians divided o Intellectual? Rebel? Cru
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