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HIST 2905 April 8, 2014.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 2904
Greg Fisher

Rome, Persia and Arabia Abraha and last great king of Himyar • Won back north from Persia • Protected north from Romen interference • Long inscription at marib, Yemen (dam) • Himyar in nationalist • Christian, protect kingdom from outsiders • Ethiopian Roman slave • Campaigns in Arabia – Qur’an • By 559, all coming to a close • Last king of Himyar becomes a Persian vessel • Then Persian conquest of Himyar • Turned tables on Rome • 602, Persian invasion of Roman Empire What does (should?) this mean? • Arabia is an important arena for Roman and Persian history • Sectorian violence driver by Roman Persian conflict and competition • Three monotheistic state, all competing for control of Middle East Wider context: Islam connected with Judaism, Roman Christianity, intense religious/political conflict? Connected with all these diddferent religions A by-product of Roman/Persian warfare? • Search for universal religion which might match Chrsitianity, Zoroastrianism, but free from political Association? • Everyone was fighting for Arabia, Christian Rome, Jewish middle east and Zoroastrian Persia • Whole Vibrant field: Islam as a late antique religion • Place islam in context with Rome, Persia, Himyar… The Final Act: From Roman to Byzantine: Yarmuk, AD 636, And the End of Rome’s Mediterranean Empire • Time of Justinian and afterwards • His legacy: had neglected Balkans – Gepids, Lombards – now Avars broke balance o Invaded Italy o Because of his overwhelming focus to restore Italy and Africa to Roman state, he allowed groups of Barbarians to come into the power vaccumn he had created o They broke the balance of power, became powerful while the Roman world tries to figure out what to do with Italy and focus on what to do with Arabia • Justinian dies in 565 • Justin II, 572: focused on E; Avars at Sirmium, 582 o Avars had a superb position not too far from Constantople • Justin II madness over Dara…, the Fortress of Dara was finally captured by the Persians and surrendered his rule to his wife • Focused on the East and neglect on the Balkans o All tied in with collapse of the Eastern Roman Empire 582: New emperor, Maurice – lots of military experience o Served as count of the Excubitors (“Sentinels” – Imperial GUARD) o Magister militem per orientem o Could Maurice bring stability? o He was a military commander o Partially yes: o Slavs, Avars o Installed Roman Client, Krusrau II, ‘Parvez; - Ever Victorious’ – on Throne - Context: rebellion in Persia - Roman Army marched through the streets in support of a Persian Empire o Turned Khusrau into Maurice’s friend, they called each other brother Persian Empire is now reduced to a small state of Rome Other side, the avars are being held in check Things were quite but: - In constantiople tensions went up - In 602, Balkan army with Phocas -> they had an uprising, mutiny - In November 25, 602, Phocas < Maurice, kids dead and killed at Chalcedon - Khusrau: War of ‘revenge’  Sources talk about how his brother is dead and they had to take revenge  He planned and executed a successful campaign against the Roman Empire  Last great war against Rome and Persia  Great war was won, but then they lost 5 years later to Muslim  Squeezed cConstantinople from both sides Result: Apocalypse: • Sasanian invasion of Roman Empire • Essential consequence • Khusrau made allies with the Barbarians 604-610 • War slowly went against Rome • 610: Governor of Africa and son, Heraclius o In the first year, the war went against the Romans o Take the land army, whoever got there first got the land, Heraclius became the new king • Heraclius, son of governor of Africa • This is a holy war between Heraclius and Phocas • 608/609 – expedition to depose Phocas o Heraclius is very religious, very Christian • This went from Bad to worse: o The Persians now took things and stayed instead of sacking it and then withdrawing o 611: Antioch: Change in Persian Strategy  Took and settled i
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