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PHIL 2102 Week 7 Class 2.docx

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PHIL 2103
Jay Drydyk

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Week 7 Day 2 – The Universal Declaration in a Post-Colonial World • Dominant understanding of HR was inconsistent o Excluding colonized peoples, slaves, women • Dominant understanding of HR was incomplete o More than political protection required o Need to limit social disadvantages resulting from power inequalities and market forces  Mary Wollstonecraft and the Declaration of the Rights of Man Inconsistancy • 20c. Holocaust suffered by Jews, Roma and Armenians • Continuation of African Holocaust and racism o Apartheid o Rwanda Incompleteness st • Attempt to limit HR to 1 generations (civil and political) • Struggle to include 2 generation (social ,economic and cultural rights) human rights rd • Further struggle to gain recognition for 3 generation (group rights, self-determination of peoples, right to development) Previously: • Slave trade outlawed in the beginning of the 1820s o Success in Britain, Britain colonies and international waters • International labor organization 1919 o Representatives of business labor and government o Tried to establish international norms for working conditions • Failure: the league of nations covenant San Francisco Conference of 1945 • UN created • Protection of HR included among UN objectives • Drafting process begins o Only 2 non-western members o Both favor western philosophical traditions o Models 1789 US bill of rights and other western declarations o Social/economic rights from socialist, Latin America countries o Right to social/international order to realize HR from Malik (Lebanon) socialist countries o Mehta (India): Protection of cultural minorities (vs. assimilation) • Want to encourage countered to follow the rights o Monitoring agencies o Human rights commission Universal Declaration of Human Rights Adopted 1948 • Only 56 countries voted • Occurred in Paris, France • Dozens of countries became independent from colonization over the next 30 years • Now: 200+ countries o Many countries have ceased to be colonies since then Late Controversies: • Right to property dropped • US resists social/economic rights, splits covenants o Thought it was too socialist • US rejects right to development Third World Response • Adoption of regional charters and declarations o Wanted local monitoring agencies so theu could be montiered by those from their own countries and not rely on colonial relationships with the west • Influenced drafting of Covenants o Flavored adoption or social economic rights o Called for recognition of right of self-determinations of peoples • Implementation o Demanded action against apartheid, racial discrimination o Continued to call for New International Economic Order, Right to Development • Heritage – HR in non-Western traditions o Asoka, India  Indian emperor 269 – 232 BCE  After bloody Kalinga was converted to Buddhism  His edicts, calling for peace and tolerations were posted on pillars throughout empire o Akbar, India  Mughal emperor at 14, 1556- 1605  Promoted religious toleration/respect among Muslims, Hindus , Christians and Parsees  Accepted advice and guidance from all religions  His son Jahangir built the Taj Mahal o Pro-HR understandings of Islam Are Human Rights Essentially Western? • YES: o Western values  Does the golden rule appear in every culture? o Western authors • NO: o Democracy existed in east first o Early religious tolerance in India Western or Non-Western, Valuable or Not? Not Valuable Valuable Western Rejectionalism Trium
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