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PHIL 2102 Week 10 Class 2.docx

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PHIL 2103
Jay Drydyk

Week 10 Class 2 • Rights do not need to be only based on western thinking and standards • Need multiple value systems • Converge them to make one concrete code Relativism: • Relevant because if there are different values in different places, how do we all get the same rights if our values contradict? • The fear: moral imposition o Bentham: Hark! Ye citizens of the other side of the water! Can you tell us what rights you have belonging to you? No, that you can't. It's we who understand rights: not our own only, but yours into the bargain; while you, poor simple souls! Know nothing about the matter…. • Supporting relativism – the right thing to do is to act by your own values and culture o This way no one is accused of moral superiority o We don’t want to preach to others and act as though others know nothing and need to be told • Bentham – all societies should have own utilitarian system o Not in india • Cultural Relativism o Rights in a society are justified by the values of that society o Rights differ amount societies with different values o Human rights are necessarily universal o Therefore no human rights Dilemma • Because there is cultural diversity, there is no single set of values, native to every culture that supports human rights • Therefore, either o Human rights values need to be imposed or o There are no human rights • Two Solutions o Diverse moral outlooks can converge in support of human rights o Cultural relativism  Dilemma is correct  All rights are culturally – specific Arguments for Relativism • Morality as social approval • Moral isolationism • Normative r relativism Morality as Approval • “moral” means “socially approved” • What is socially approved differs from society to society • What is morally right and wrong differs • Ruth Benedict: o …morality differs in every society, and it is a convenient term for socially approved habits. Mankind has always preferred to say, “It is morally good,” rather than “It is habitual,” …. But historically the two phrases are synonymous. o No difference in meaning between good morally and socially and approved o Doing Z is good, Doing Z is socially approved The “Open Question” Problem • Is it good to do what is socially approved? o A meaningful, not trivial question o Good = socially approved • Is it good to do what’s socially approved? o This is a trivial question • Theref
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