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PSCI 2102 February 14, 2013.doc

5 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

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February 14, 2013 China: 1. Long history as a state 2. Resentment of the West 3. Revolution 4. Centralized state -> built the country from the ground up 5. Socialist period: Allowed for two things: industrial infrastructure and social infrastructure (public health and education) China virtually eliminated illiteracy and had a system of public health (By the time Mao had died, life expectancy was ten years higher than that of India's) 6. Without what was created during Mao period, market reforms would not have been successful a. Ironically, failure of socialist period, destruction caused by cultural revolution made better cultural reforms b. Was a centralized state, but not well operating c. With USSR's 5 year plan, central planning was actually planning a hundred thousand commodities d. Because of all the disruptions, the central government planned only 236 commodities e. Not only was there market competition, but regions and regions competed against each other f. Local and international competition made economic progress go up • India, unlike China, does not have long history of a centralized state India • Diversity is important aspect, another contrast is that it is a democracy Overview of India • India: An overview • Ancient India and culture of reform • India is a federal Parliamentary state like Canada • There are 29 states in India • Over time, Congress lost majorities at the state level, croding its national power • Unlike Canada, the Ancient India and the culture of Hinduism • "Masala" approach to religion o See this in the practice of many faiths today • Local gods incorporated into Vedic Gods with the arrival of the Aryans, circa 1500- 1200BCE o Sanskrit and Dravidian culture overlain • Caste as distribution of labour o Concept of "out-caste" and "untouchability" • Relationship of "pre-destiny" to economic and social life • Colours (lighter skin and Indian) related to a religious system based on the idea of reincarnation • What you do in this life time will impact your next lifetime • Caste works as division of labour • Brahmin (Priestly caste), Kshatriya (warrior caste), Vaish (Artisan caste), Shudra (Agricultural caste) below are the "untouchables" • System of reincarnation • Cows are holy because they are next things to human in the hierarchy of caste • The Vaish and higher are twice lived (reincarnated) Kautilya, Chandragupta and the Mauryan Empire • Credited with developing the 'germs' of a notion of international society o The Raja Mandala system, or "circle of states" • Most likely wrote the Arthasastra circa 300BCE • He was the educator and later Chief Minister to the first Mauryan emperor Mughal Sultanate • Most important of the Islamic Sultanate • Established Muslim hegemony over the subcontinent • India rarely united before this • Relatively peaceful arrangements involving Hindu princes and Musli Nawabs all paying homage to the Delhi-based sultanate • Muslims ruled over Hindus' • Hindus ruled over Muslims • Over time, Hinduism absorbed buddism, Buddha becomes another God, another expression of Godhood • Given the extreme inequality that is inherent, when Islam came to India, it had an impact, it allowed people to circumvent the system of caste • Comes to different parts of India in about the 10th century AD, 300 years after the time of Mohammed • Created a state based on Muslim rulers, managed, despite the fact of deep contradictions between Hindu Polytheism and strict Islam mono-theism, they managed to get along really well • Tax farming was created, a system where in a sense, what you do is the state depends on people to collect taxes for and in return for collecting taxes, they get a cut • The Mughals created "tax farming" • Through this system where Hindu tax farmers could still play a part in Indian political system • Established capital in Delhi and ruled fairly successfully for 200 years. British Raj • System of indirect rule • Marathi Confederacy mobilizing violently against British influence, pushes North to Delhi and demands the functional reinstatement of the Moghul Sultan • Created local princes and maharajs, British put themselves as the highest caste • Sepoy Rebellion(1857) led to the formal establishment of the British Raj, civil service and Queen Victoria as the Empress of India (Sepoys: Indian troops with British officers) • Gives sense of some of the problems in India with religious and communal complexity • Sovereigns movement follows reformist approach rather than armed resistance • Indian National Congress formed (1885) • Out of religious values, was a rebellion against the British troops • Begin to set up centralized system of rule • More and more people were getting used to British Rule • Started to receive a British Style of education could speak English • India was ruled in a modify system of common law • Group of English educated elites, both Hindu and Muslim established the Indian National Congress • Should have same kind of system as Britain • Have education and language of Englishman, why shouldn’t I have the rights? • Formed initially as an elite movement in 1885 • This movement was eventually transformed by Gandhi Self-Rule Movement • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1863-1948) o Stayagraha, swaraj, swadesh o "Power of truth", "self rule", "self Sufficiency" • He was a WAG, educated coloured person • Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) o Muslim League, push for Pakistan • Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 - 1964) • Massacre at Amritsar (1919) • The Salt March (1930) • Hunger Strikes (1922-1942) • End of British Raj and simultaneous birth of India and Pakistan (East and West on DATE! • Wanted to show himself as an indian with homespun clothes • Britain built its wealth on textile industry that was built on importing Indian cotton and selling it back to India, destroying the Handiwork industry • Gandhi tried to revive the system of self sufficiency • Movement became stronger during first world war • Was a campaigner against caste difference, discrimination against the outcast even though he was a Brahman • As the independence movement m
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