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PSCI 2102 January 31, 2013.doc
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Department
Political Science
Course
PSCI 2101
Professor
Andrea Chandler
Semester
Winter

Description
Jan. 31, 2013 Essay and Midterm • Worth 15% of grade • 5 identification questions 5 points each • Identify and state the significance of five of the following terms" choice of 10 • 3 marks for corret identification and 2 marks for significance • Correct identification can come from textbooks or lectures or both - all terms mentioned in lectures • 30 study terms selected on WebCT • For each term, a single paragraph is enough (5 sentences) • Covers up to the lessons taught today • Name and author where appropriate • Significance is open ended - importance or relevance to the course is key • Short essay worth 20 points - write 3 paragraphs with 3 points on an issue • Exam is an hour long Essay Assignment - Drop off in Dunton Tower 1508a - mailbox • Write a coherent, well-referenced research essay that relates the selection of a development plan/policy/model to the adoption of a specific development ideology within a specific time France in one of the countries on our list. What was the impact (Who were the winners or loser? Did the plan enhance wealth and social welfare? Did it make the country stronger or weaker?) of this policy on the country in question? • Outline due Feb. 14th: Names the country, the plan, the time frame • Has a basic thesis statement • Has a preliminary outline with section headings • Has a basic bibliography with no fewer than 5 sources (maybe an annotated bibliography) • Is not longer than 2 pages • Every on time outline with these elements will receive at least 4/5 Essay would be evaluated on the following basis: • 10 marks for the quality of research - the number, depth and authority of the sources • 10 marks for the quality of argument and analysis - does the argument make logical sense? Is it supported by evidence from the sources? • 10 marks for style and readability - proper, consistent citations; proper paragraphing, logical arrangement of sections and headings; grammar, punctuation and spelling The basis of politics in China The setting • Chinese Civilization begins in the Yellow River basin at the beginning of the second Millennium BCE • Oldest continuous civilization in the world • Shang Dynasty 1500-1000 BCE • Sophisticated bronze age culture • Origins of Chinese writing • Cultivation of "virtue" (de) and • Emperor as lynchpin between Heaven and earth Confucius (551-479BCE) Basic Ideas: Hierarchy and manners • Primacy of 5 relationships • Rule by Virtue: Humanity, man • "Let the king be a king, let the minister be the Minister, let the father be a father and let the son be a son" • Father-son; king-minister; husband-wife; elder brother-younger brother; friends • All these are hierarchical relationships except friends, order in society is from maintaining the proper hierarchy and acting the right way in relationships -> The father or king or person on top has to behave with real authority and take care of the person, there is a responsibility • Confucius gave his philosophy • Confucius political philosophy is a philosophy of mis-manners • Society could work smoother if everyone had more manners • People in specific authorities should relate to each other in the proper way • Makes an analogy between the family and the state • State is a microcosm of the state • Number of set relationships put in Unified Empire 221 BCE Rational Bureaucracy under Law Confucian Empire: Han (201 BCE)-1911 • Confucian State ideology • Bureaucrats recruited by exam • Top degree holders became civil servants • Lower degree holders became gentry (shenshi) assist in local administration • Combined two ideologies, ideology of Confucius with his own authoritative rule • He was a tyrannical ruler • Combined centralized rule under bureaucrats and a bureaucracy with Confucius rule by virtue and hierarchy • By 6th-7th AD, bureaucracy was recruited by exams: (Country examination, provincial exam, metropolitan exam) -> if you passed, you'd get a job in the civil service • Annual evaluations, promoted, demoted, etc. • Had certain kind of priviledges and helped in local administration Dynastic Cycle "You can win the empire on horseback but you cannot rule it from horseback" • Each dynasty emerges with military superiority (The best thing you could be, next to the emperor, was a government civil servant/official) • Imperial bureaucracy appoints magistrates down to county level (approximately 2000 countries) • Gentry land-owners participate in local administration • Corruption weakens revenue base • Imperial household expenditure rises • Fiscal crisis weakens national defence • Peasants rebel or nomadic invasion • Dynasty falls -> when new dynasty comes in, they have a new tax system, the emperor has a relatively small household • The emperor's household is huge • The longer a government stays in power, the more corrupt it becomes • Corruption may mean that land owners are not paying their fair share of taxes, which means poor people could be paying more • If there is corruption, means central government may have less money to spend • May not have enough soldiers or the generals are pocketing the money themselves • The other thing that could happen, in order to protect themselves, they put up the great wall • System would constantly renew itself • China was an a newricultural country, the basis of wealth was land -> Tax the land to make money for military or defense • Landowners could afford to send their kids to school • Landowners would be the helpers of the officials in helping to run these counties • China changes, there is technological improvement • Not much competition because there is more unification • In many ways, the Chinese dynasty discouraged innovation Trade and Diplomacy • China exported, but there was nothing China needed to import as far as they were concerned • As far as the emperor is concerned, he was the emperor of everything, there were no rival countries anywhere in the neighbourhood • But then the Europeans with no particular attention created capitalism • Before discovery of new world, silver was rarer than it is today, when the Spanish go to the new world, they find new sources of silk still working today • The Spanish would load of their ga
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