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PSCI 2102 March 14, 2013.doc

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Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

March 14, 2013 • Legacy of slavery • High inequality • Late democracy • Late democracy • Estado Novo populism, Corportaism and ISI • Military Coup (1965), Nationalism and industrialization, hyper inflation • Abertra deomcratic opening • Structural adjustment and cardoso plan • Election of Lula (Labour) - Bolsa familia and redistribution IRAN • Terms: Persia, Aryans, Shi'a • Geography • Population • History • Ancient Iran Ancient Persia • Cradle of civilization bordering Mesopotamia • Orginian of Zoroastrian religion • The Persian Empire (Old Persian Parsa)(c. 550-330BCE), sometimes known as the first Persian Empire and/or Achaemenid Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median Confederation. It expanded to eventually rule over significant portions of the ancient world which at around 500 BCE stretched from the Indus Valley in the east, to the Thrace and Macedon on the north-eastern border of Greece. • Empires were overthrown by Alexander the Great, a Macedonian Greek Sassanid Empire • From 224-651 CE (AD) Sassanid Empire dominates Eastern Mediterranian and Central Asia under Zoroastrian rulers (Shahansha or King of Kings harkening to Achaemenids) • Sassanid's succumb to Moslem Arab Conquest after the battle of Qadissiya (636AD) • Muslim Arab conquest Islam • Strict Monotheist religion tracing itself to prophet Mohammed 570-632 CE • Born in Mecca Arabian Peninsula into a merchant family • At age 40 in Month of Ramadan receives revelation; Quran dictated to him by Archangel Gabriel • In 622 flees to Medina (Hijra) establishes state in Medina beginning of Muslim calendar • 632 after conquering Mecca, dies • Mohammed lived in the city of Mecca that belonged to a merchant family • One God; Mohammed last and final prophet • Five Pillars 1. Profession of faith, Shahada 2. Prayer (five times daily) salat 3. Harity or Almsgiving zakah 4. Fasating (during the month of Ramadan Shi'a and Sunni Traditions • Mohammed succeeded by companion Abu Bakr as Caliph • Mohammed's cousin and son-in-law Ali does not accept this • Shi'a comes from the 'Party of Ali' Shi'at Ali • Abu-Bakr succeeded by Umar and Uthman, after which Ali becomes Caliph • Ali assisinated in 661- Ummayad Caliphate established • Ali's son Hussayn defeated at Karbala in 680 Twelver Shi'a • After Hussayn's (the fourth Imam) martyrdom there are 8 Imams of Shi'ah Islam • Twelfth Imam disappears and is hidden, said to come back Modern Iran • 1501 Safavid Dynasty (1722) • Adiot Shi'a as the official religion • 1794 Qajar Dynasty • 1803 Iran - Russian wars • 1906 The Constitution Revolution Pahlavi Dynasty • 1921 Reza Khan Coup • 1925 Pahlavi Dynasty • 1941 Allied invasion of Iran • 1951 Nationalization of the oil industry • 1953 Coup against Mosaddeq • 1979 Islamic Revolution, causes: o Internal: Legitimacy crisis, social crises o External: Bipolar system and the US Protection • White revolution: land reform, building of industries, emancipation of women, etc • Cyrus the great decided in 1974 to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the Iranian military • Holds it in Persepolis, Invites Maxine from Paris to cater the event • Food is catered all the way from Paris • Decides to abolish the Iranian New Year and adopt the Western New Year • Unnecessary because there are reasons as to why you wouldn't want to adopt the ordinary Western one • There was great resentment towards the Shah who was also torturing and imprisoning anyone who said something against him • Jimmy Carter was the President who then adopted Human Rights diplomacy as the official diplomacy of the United States • There was a kind of religious opposition Hominy • Melding idea of constitutionalism with the whole notion of Shi'a Islam combined into structure of state Islamic Republic of Iran • Sovereignty (56) • Legitimacy • Velayat - e - Faqih o The guardianship of the jurisconsult (Theological Jurisprudence) (4) o Participation (
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