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Lecture 4

Psych 354 - Lecture 4.doc

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Denise Marigold

LECTURE 4 – ATTACHMENT STYLES - Motivation comes from early social development (early experiences in family, relationships with caregivers/parents) - For most of us, when we fall in love, we seek for a sense of safety, want to be taken care of - Emotional bonds we form with romantic partners are heavily influenced by the emotional attachments we had when we were babies Attachment - Popular research during WWII (babies’ parents died in war, social service group worried about raising children without mother care, would they be less well adjusted?) - Bowlby’s Theory suggests that children become attached to their primary care givers, use these emotional bonds to figure out how to interact with them and other people. He referred to these attachments as Internal Working Models. He suggested these attachments are mental representations of how caregivers interact with us. Tell us whether person can be trusted to meet our needs, and the serve as behavioural systems that helps us maintain feeling of security when feeling anxious or stressed - Stressed  attachment systems tell us how to behave, whether to seek people for sense of security - Positive attachments with parents  feel safe with other people with whom we develop emotialn bonds - Negative attachments  people are not to be relied on 1. Secure attachment  secure, caregiver is comforting and responsive to needs. Will help in time of needs, go out and explore environment 2. Anxious  internal working model suggesting caregiver is not always there. Learn cannot always lean on caregiver, parents are unreliable sources of comfort 3. Avoidant  caregivers cannot be counted at all. Parents not responsive, never trusted to meet their needs - STUDY (The Strange Situation) o Infants 12-18 months old left in playroom, and parents leave the room and replaced with experimenter o Observed behaviour when parent left the room + experimenter tried to provide comfort, and when mother returned o Falls into the 3 categories above  Secure  65%, play comfortably, visibly upset when mother left room, cry and don’t calm down easily, settle down quite quickly when mother returns  Anxious  hesitant to explore environment, cling to mother fearing they will leave, become very upset when mother leaves and even when she returns into room. When mother returns, they do seek for mother, but resists mother’s attempt to comfort them. 23%  Avoidant  don’t seem to worry when playing, mother leaves and they don’t appear to be upset, very willing to accept comfort from stranger. Mother returns, don’t tend to seek comfort from mother. Tendency to look away and ignore mothers. 12% - Early attachment experiences lay the ground work for later relationships - Attachment can be shaped differently later in life, malleable, may limit how well we attach to people later on STUDY  attachment style of adults raised in enacted, divorced, or conflict ridden families - Intuition tells us when people are supposed to model good relationships, when these relationships model have trouble maintaining own relationship, we may learn the wrong thing about what we should do to maintain relationship - Parents should stay together no matter happy for the sake of children - People who grew up parents who fought a lot  avoidant, concerned whether we’re worthy of being loved, less trust in future relationship, stays distant from partner, afraid of being hurt. This is a way of protecting themselves. More conflict in relationships. - People who grew up with divorced parents  females were more vulnerable. Much more likely to have anxious attachment style. Worries about being abandoned. Learn that men leave. - Main point  Attachment styles not only affected by caregivers, other experiences during childhood or adolescent may have dramatic effect on attachment styles, and thus how we behave in adult relationships. Also, it may not necessarily be a good idea for parents to stay together even when they are unhappy with relationship because it can be more harmed by parents who fight a lot than parents who divorce How do these attachment styles translate into adult attachment styles? - When we grow up, primary attachment styles change - Attachment figure when young  caregivers, most likely our moms - Adulthood /romantic relationships  relatio
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