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Lecture 7

SDS353R Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Global Community, Mines And Collieries Act 1842, Child Prostitution


Department
Social Development Studies
Course Code
SDS353R
Professor
Geoff Malleck
Lecture
7

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[ LECTURE 7 ] THE CHILD AT WORK (THE CHILD AS WORKER)
Work related to status in our society
i.e. intimidated/act differently to those who earn more than we do
Time Children and Adults Have After Satisfying Physical Needs to Occupy Their Time
Education
Work
Play and leisure
Overemphasis on one precludes others
Children’s Labour
Defined as appropriate/inappropriate by society
Children have always worked from antiquity on
Medieval Child
Apprentice and servant (almost all children in lower class one at some point)
1. Domestic service
2. Field service
3. Apprentice: - all in family atmospherejobs defined by age and gender
- work meant edu and (u)
- first apprenticeship law in 1563; 7-year team (young workers didn’t have to compete, dN
get paid but got room and board)(apprentice masters dN lose child either from being lured
away for another apprenticeship after so much investment)
- child abused, but also some care
Jobs: Baking break, brewing beer, roasting meat, catching animals, craftsman (usually for boys),
dressmaking (for girls), field tending (for girls)
Industrial Revolution
Started mid 18th c. (ca. 1750), child was cheap labour
Work noisy and dangerous; employers exploited children, so they lost adv↑’s work brought medieval child
- simultaneously brought unemployment for adults
- no longer treated as accepted member of society (not protected by apprentice master)
Exploited by parents (i.e. lied about age)
Jobs: chimney sweeps, prostitutes, miners, factory workers
18th and 19th century at cotton mill:
- worked sunrise to sunset, 6 days a week, 2 ½ days off a year
- earned half as much as female worker, and a quarter of what a man earned
- in cotton mills, started working as young as 4, and often made up almost half of its work force
If caught fooling around, missed work b/c sick, or ruined product (i.e. shoe)…
- made to pay fine (in product’s case, retail price)
- missed day’s pay
- aar: often more in debt by end of the week than they should have earned
Terrible working conditions not uncommon for child to have lost a finger/limb
1000s of children often sold by own family to employers
White slave marketselling of girls into prostitution market
Child stealing often done to sell to employers
Owners not responsible for injuries/diseases aar of poor conditions on the job
100s killed on job, w/ avg life expectancy as 33
Evolution of Laws in Great Britain
1784: Manchester 10hrs/day, not at night
1802: Factory Act 12hr work limit and req’d some hygienic measures and some schooling
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