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PHl277 Sept 17.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Philip Clark

PHL277 Monday, September 17, 2012 Agenda for class: 1. voluntarism 2. the argument from disagreement 3. no proof argument 4. what is the alternative? 5. nietzsche- distinguishes between good/bad and good/evil Three attidudes that can shape thruths in ethics, they are also cognitivist points of view ( the view that value judgements can be true or false) ● Individual relativism, is the belief that the individual is responsible for his or her own moral code, or ethics ● Cultural relativism is the belief that society shapes our moral code. ● Voluntarism is the belief that god shapes our moral code, he decides what is right or wrong. Voluntarism: there are some issues that arise for this way of thinking ● first is the euthyphro question: are gods commands what is right or does he command or decide something because it is right ● if the latter is true, then that is no longer voluntarism. it falls under a non-cognitivist view (the view that value judgements cannot be false or true) ● the latter judgement, that gods decides things because they are right is called intellectualism ● another issue for voluntarism is arbitrariness, god could be making commands for no reason, potentially we would want god to be wise and to have reasons behind his commands, but that would contradict with voluntarism thinking ● another issue is meaningness, what does it mean to say “God is good” it seems that according to voluntarism “god is good” means god is as god commands good to be, he decides what good is and therefore he is also defining himself simultaneously.
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