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Biological Sciences
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Mark Fitzpatrick

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DNA 1) Indicate the importance of DNA in the human body DNA in the body contains important genetic information that teaches the body how to produce the correct proteins for proper human function. Without DNA, the body wouldn’t know how to create cells and therefore bodily functions will not perform. 2) Describe the structure and function of DNA DNAs consists of a Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate backbone, and Nitrogenous base (Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine). The Nitrogenous bases create base pairs where Guanine pairs with Cytosine and Adenine pairs with Thymine. The phosphate forms the length of the ladder while the base pairs and deoxyribose forms the steps of the ladder. In general, DNA is a double helix, twisted ladder that is coiled into chromosomes. The function of DNA is to encode genetic information that is essential to creating new organisms, cells, and proteins which will then add up to define new bodily functions. 3) Describe Base Pairs and identify the four bases Base pairs are pairs of nitrogenous bases in the form of AT, CG, TA, and GC. Each nitrogenous base is paired with another nitrogenous to form the steps of the DNA ladder. The sequences of these pairs encode genetic information that is read when the body makes new cells. Each nitrogenous base is unique based on how many rings it has. Adenine and Cytosine are purines with 2 rings. Thymine and Guanine are pyrimidine with 1 ring. Base pairs are as so because these nucleotide pairs must pair up to form 3 rings. Any more and the DNA structure would be obstructed. 4) Identify the 3 components of a DNA Nucleotide Deoxyribose sugar: on the side to hold the base pairs in place Phosphate: holds the sugars and keeps them standing Base Pairs: consisting of nitrogenous bases in the centre attached with hydrogen bondings. 5) Explain the significance of the human genome project The human genome project compiled all 30,000 genes of the body through 3 billion individual characters; a list of all the information that makes up what a human is. This information gathered by the human genome project is significant because it’s the first time that there was a database about a single species in a data form. This allows for comparisons of different human genetic differences, and to analyze the data to find genetic relations to what causes diseases. Having this piece of data will allow us dive deep within the genetic molecular makeup to help develop cures and preventions for certain diseases and to know what makes who we are. Cell Division 1) Distinguish between somatic cells and sex cells (gametes) in terms of location and genetic makeup Somatic cells are cells that form most of an organism’s parts. Somatic cells contain diploid chromosomes, meaning there are pairs of each chromosome within a somatic cell. Contrary to somatic cells, sex cells are located only within reproductive organs such as the testes and ovaries. They are haploid cells where they only contain half the number of chromosomes as there are in a somatic cell. 2) Explain why gametes must be haploid, while somatic cells are diploid
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