1) Indicate the importance of DNA in the human body
DNA in the body contains important genetic information that teaches the body how to
produce the correct proteins for proper human function. Without DNA, the body wouldn’t
know how to create cells and therefore bodily functions will not perform.
2) Describe the structure and function of DNA
DNAs consists of a Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate backbone, and Nitrogenous base
(Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine). The Nitrogenous bases create base pairs where
Guanine pairs with Cytosine and Adenine pairs with Thymine. The phosphate forms the
length of the ladder while the base pairs and deoxyribose forms the steps of the ladder. In
general, DNA is a double helix, twisted ladder that is coiled into chromosomes.
The function of DNA is to encode genetic information that is essential to creating new
organisms, cells, and proteins which will then add up to define new bodily functions.
3) Describe Base Pairs and identify the four bases
Base pairs are pairs of nitrogenous bases in the form of AT, CG, TA, and GC. Each
nitrogenous base is paired with another nitrogenous to form the steps of the DNA ladder.
The sequences of these pairs encode genetic information that is read when the body makes
new cells. Each nitrogenous base is unique based on how many rings it has. Adenine and
Cytosine are purines with 2 rings. Thymine and Guanine are pyrimidine with 1 ring. Base
pairs are as so because these nucleotide pairs must pair up to form 3 rings. Any more and
the DNA structure would be obstructed.
4) Identify the 3 components of a DNA Nucleotide
Deoxyribose sugar: on the side to hold the base pairs in place
Phosphate: holds the sugars and keeps them standing
Base Pairs: consisting of nitrogenous bases in the centre attached with hydrogen bondings.
5) Explain the significance of the human genome project
The human genome project compiled all 30,000 genes of the body through 3 billion
individual characters; a list of all the information that makes up what a human is. This information gathered by the human genome project is significant because it’s the first time
that there was a database about a single species in a data form. This allows for
comparisons of different human genetic differences, and to analyze the data to find genetic
relations to what causes diseases. Having this piece of data will allow us dive deep within
the genetic molecular makeup to help develop cures and preventions for certain diseases
and to know what makes who we are.
1) Distinguish between somatic cells and sex cells (gametes) in terms of location and genetic
Somatic cells are cells that form most of an organism’s parts. Somatic cells contain diploid
chromosomes, meaning there are pairs of each chromosome within a somatic cell. Contrary
to somatic cells, sex cells are located only within reproductive organs such as the testes
and ovaries. They are haploid cells where they only contain half the number of
chromosomes as there are in a somatic cell.
2) Explain why gametes must be haploid, while somatic cells are diploid