HLTB21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Germ Theory Of Disease, Cholera Toxin, Serotype

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31 Oct 2010
School
Department
Course
Until the 19th Century
Miasmatic:
-Pettenkofer (1818 -1901)
-steadfastly refused to believe in the germ thoery
-drunk a vial of bacteria contaminated water
-disease caused by ‘bad vapour
-Contagionists:
-Believed the ‘germ theory’ announced by Pasteur (1862)
-Koch and Hansen
-Diseases spread from person to person by an infectious agent
Epidemiology
-History of cholera is described as the history of pandemics
-7 pandemics
-1) 1816-1821: originated in India (River Gangs) and was spread by mainly by British troops,
headquaters in Bengal
-2) 1829-1851: more widespread, reaching Europe, Canada, and the US
1831-mortality of 13% in Cairo, Egypt
1832-3: 60,000 deaths in England - disease known as ‘King Cholera’
1849 - called ‘America’s greatest scourge’
-3) 1852-1859: Scientific advances in understanding cholera
-4) 1863-1873
-5) 1881-1896: hygienic measures stopped its spread to N America
-6) 1899-1923: for teh most part missed the western hemisphere
-7) 1961-ongoing
-series of epidemics:
-1961: Celebes Island, Asia, Middle East
-1992: aboard a flight from S America to the US
-1990s: 200,000in SE Asia
-1994: Zaire, killed 50,000 Rwandan refugees in 21 days
-2000: Africa
Etiology
-During the 5th epidemic (1883)
-Koch dispatched to Egypt to isolate the microbe
-Able to see the bacteria in feces of 12 patients
-Vibrio cholerae (due to its vibrating wiggles)
-Incubation period - few hours to 5 days
-139 different serogroups
-V. cholerae must itself be infected w/2 viruses
-One has a gene that codes for the cholera toxin (cause of diarrhea)
-other must have a gene that codes for the receptor that allows the toxin-coding virus to
enter the bacterium
Infection with Cholera
-infected individual excretes a trillion V. cholerae each day
Lecture 9 - Cholera
1
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Document Summary

Steadfastly refused to believe in the germ thoery. Drunk a vial of bacteria contaminated water. Believed the germ theory" announced by pasteur (1862) Diseases spread from person to person by an infectious agent. History of cholera is described as the history of pandemics. 1) 1816-1821: originated in india (river gangs) and was spread by mainly by british troops, headquaters in bengal. 2) 1829-1851: more widespread, reaching europe, canada, and the us. 1832-3: 60,000 deaths in england - disease known as king cholera". 3) 1852-1859: scienti c advances in understanding cholera. 5) 1881-1896: hygienic measures stopped its spread to n america. 6) 1899-1923: for teh most part missed the western hemisphere. 1992: aboard a ight from s america to the us. 1994: zaire, killed 50,000 rwandan refugees in 21 days. Koch dispatched to egypt to isolate the microbe. Able to see the bacteria in feces of 12 patients. Vibrio cholerae (due to its vibrating wiggles)

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