Lecture 4

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Published on 7 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 4:
Review from last week:
Natural selection happens when:
- Within-species competition
- Within-species differences
- Phenotype tied to genotype
- Environmental favors some heritable variations over others
Ex: moths that like light die off
Emotional expressions are adaptations.
- they are actions that helped our ancestors survive.
- they coincided with emotions our ancestors felt.
- e.g., crying when unhappy.
- lubricate eyes, to protect them from dust, debris, smoke, etc
Evolution and culture
- Primitive urges shape culture. (reproduction, survival)
- e.g., language t social grooming in chimps, but not adaptive in human world
- Culture controls primitive urges. (laws, authority, power)
- Culture changes but sometimes }µ}]vu]vv[lµYthere are limits to
evolutionary adaptation. (Ex: sugar consumption)
- We do not know how to cope with the rapid pace of industrialization, urbanization, and
immigration.
- These are sources of new emotional problems, that tZv}Á}µov[ZÀZ}(
- Crowding & social isolation
- dZ}ÆY ^]vPo}voÇ]v}Á_ t the ways we cope are not genetically translated
Undeniably, emotions are evolutionarily significant.
6 basic emotions Emotions that promote social bonding
- Fear t survival
- Disgust t know what not to eat
- Sadness t](]vPo}voÇ]v[}ouUÁ}µov[(]vv}ZuUZ}µÀ]Ào
- Anger t goals are being blocked, be assertive
- Happiness t tells us that things are going ok, maintaining social bonds
- Surprise t something unexpected has happened, be prepared for it next time
An Evolutionary Perspective implies:
- Emotions are the same across generations
- Emotions are the same across cultures
- zÁoZ}(À]vZ}ÁY
- Emotions, emotional expressions, and emotional disorders differ by generation and by culture
What is Culture?
- Andre Malraux (French novelist):
- ^YZµu}(ooZ(}u}(U}(o}ÀUv}(ZPZUÁZ]ch in the course of centuries, have
vouv}ovoÀ_X
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- Matsumoto & Juang (psychology version):
- ^µv]µuv]vPv]v(}u]}vÇuUZÇPvvu]}
generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-
]vPUv]Àuv]vP(}uo](_~XíîX
Culture Involves
1) Objects, explicit elements t products of culture, material things
- Ex: architecture, clothes, food, art
2) Subjective, implicit elements t }o}v[Z]vlabout them consciously
- Ex: ideas, theories, psychological processes t each person has a slightly diff version
Psychological Processes Can Be:
1. Etics
- Consistent cross-culturally -> Universal (ex: language, problem solving,
- General emotionality (feeling emotion)Y consistent cross-culture
- Basic felt u}]}vY basic six seem to occur in every culture
2. Emics
- Culturally-specific t different conditions/situations cause emotions
- Emotion: different antecedents, intensity, expression t how strong you feel it is culturally
dependent, emotions are felt but not expressed in some cultures
- Some emotions specific to some cultures
Western Attitude Towards Emotions?
- KoÇ[uv}(tvµoµÀovimplicit ambivalent (not sure if it is good or
bad) attitude about emotions:
- ^tulu]lµZ]vu}}u(}o}µ(}µ]}l]v]PZ
ÁZ]}Á]Zu}]}vX_
- Reminiscent of? British Enlightenment view, reason > emotions
- ^dZvv}lv}ÁoPÁithout emotion. We may be aware of a truth, yet until we have
(o](}U]]v}X_
- Reminiscent of? German Romantic view, emotions > reason
Non-Western Attitudes Towards Emotions
- Separation between emotion & cognition?
- Idealizing of one over the other?
o Presumably there is cross-cultural difference.
- ,}ÁÀU(]ÁÁ]ooo}}lµv]Ào]Çu}o}oÇY
Ekman, Sorenson & Friesen (1969): (the beginning studies)
1. preliterate tribes of New Guinea
- no experience with Western media
- successfully recognize American facial expressions underlying six basic emotions
2. photographed New Guinean expressions
- Americans successfully recognize New Guinean facial expressions underlying six basic emotions.
- Continuity in emotional recognition for 6 basics!
Apart (}u&]oÆ]}vZ}Pv]]}vY Universality in Emotion Antecedents?
- what triggers emotion? Same triggers cross-culturally?
Boucher & Brandt (1981)
- United States, Malaysia
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