PSYC18H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Lz 3, Emotional Expression, Attachment Theory
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PSYC18 Psychology of Emotion Lecture 9:
1. The Parent-Child Relationship
o origin of meta-cognitive skills and EI
2. The Wider Social World
Parent-Child Relationships are the Foundation for:
- Meta-cognitive skills - Thinking about thinking, question your own psychology
- Theory-of-mind - Ability to attribute mental states to others, others may not value what you
- Emotional Intelligence - lv}Á]vPZ}Á}}v]vP}}Z[u}]}vUu}]}voo(-
efficacy (they are an emotional being)
This Skill Set Starts Being Built in Childhood
- Emotion is the key to skill acquisition!!!
- Emotional expressions are the first language between parents and children.
- Emotions allow parents and children to bond.
- Emotions are motivating }v}Z]Yv}µP]vPv}Zvhildren to learn.
Emotion is the First Language
- Emotional expression key for communication between parents and children of all ages.
- allows simple messages about basic needs. needs (hunger, pain, poop etc)
- no further differentiation required. (general crying will do the job - parents just need to know
that there is a basic physical problem)
When do babies start exhibiting distinct negative emotions? (difference in anger vs. pain vs. fear)
- Your answer depends on the criteria you use.
1) Face Focus t the furrowed brow, mouth is downturned etc.
o muscle movements may not be emotional, if you do not know the situation you cannot
jump to conclusions
o But: the best criterion?
2) Face + Situation Focus
o labeling of expression depends what elicitor it was partnered with. (diff facial muscle
movements go with diff situations)
o Ex: favorite blanket/toy t scrunched up face if out of batteries
o if different baby t loud noise from same toy makes a fear response (ex: widen eyes)
o Therfore: babies do have discrete facial expressions
- According to Oatley et al. (2006):
o Face only focus t not strict = 3 months
o Face + situation focus t stricter = more than 1 year of age
11 months = happiness and anger t seems to be distinctly expressed
Do Infants Show Distinct Negative Facial Expressions for Fear and Anger?
Camras et al. (2007). In Infancy.
- looked at facial expressions + body movements
- Seventy-two 11-month-old infants
- Cross-cultural sample: US, Japan, China
- Within-subjects design with two conditions.
o Arm restraint to elicit anger - holds down the arms, baby gets frustrated, holding up to 3
mins, crying for more than 7 seconds, take a break
o Growling gorilla to elicit fear - move the chair closer and closer to gorilla
o Ethics: 7 second rule t take a break
o Play session
- Captured video footage in two ways. - Camera on Face & Body movements
- Found a universal behavior, no culture specific behaviors
Facial Expression Coding
- Identifies combination/degree of activity of muscles that underlie
particular facial expression. - What facial muscles are active and to
- Difference in facial expression by condition?
Finding: combinations of muscle activity strongly correlated across the two
- Most common combination in both conditions was:
o Common condition = nose wrinkle and cry mouth
o Face = shows that there is no difference in anger + fear
- Was there a difference in facial expression? Yes?
- Should find the 11th month old will make a diff face for anger + fear, find little correlation
between two conditions for muscle activity
- But what is found is that they are strongly correlated = babies are making the same face for both
These Results Lead Researchers to Conclude that Fear and Anger are not Differentially
Expressed by 11 Month Olds.
- >E}]vZ&Y What about non-facial behaviors? What is the body doing?
Body Behavior Coding
- Non-facial behavior at baseline
- Non-facial behavior in response to elicitor
- e.g., withdrawal, stilling, struggling, hiding face, squirming, etc.
- Present or absent?
- Difference in body language by condition? By culture?
- Any similarities between the two conditions?
- Is there a difference by condition? Yes there is.
o Arm restraint t struggling (but not in gorilla), moderate
o Gorilla restraint t stilling (but not with arm restraint),
breathe more rapidly, not moving (frozen in fear)
o Common between two t turning towards mom