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Plutarch, Life of Sulla

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Erik Gunderson

CLA233: Week 3: Lecture 2 BACKGROUND The Army & The Late Republic -new themes emerging: -old senators (old boys traditional types, appeal to colleagues) vs. new senators (use popular connections, appeal to common people to gain notoriety) -old citizen (claims of Italian) vs. new citizen (claims of Roman) -slaves vs. masters -huge concentration of wealth: lots of big business and foreign trade -excess of people, but no jobs for them -military solution: remove property requirements -rise of Welfare state: government assistance The beginning of the end: Marius Marius eliminates the property requirement (107BC) Poor volunteers do not at once become the norm Troop shortages mean the levy of troops is still held Political careers still tied to military service: one still has reasons to participate Roman ideology still promotes the warrior citizen ideal -shift in relationship to war after Marius changes -used to farmers whod leave their farm to fight, then return to farm afterwards -now property-less person went to war, then returned to nothing -encouraged people to continue fighting since they had nothing to go back to -new clientpatron relationship emerging of army to general -*politicized military* theme, loyalties to specific general now instead of to state -Social War 91-88 BC -result is full citizenship for Italy -problem of which tribes to assign them to? The old Roman army The original Roman army is drawn from The Free Citizenry (of Rome) Geometricalcontributions of service; and geometrical political rewards The new Roman army Now the army are Roman Citizens rather than Romans in the geographical sense Rough countrymen and strangers to Rome
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