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PYB210 EXAM PRACTICE QUESTIONSQ Describe the Scientific Method A One of a number of ways by which we can gain knowledge Cannot answer questions about everything but is one of the best ways to answer questions about the physical worldQWhat are some other ways we can gain knowledge AEmpiricism Pure Reason Authority and IntuitionQWhat does the Scientific Method involve AIt involves empirically assessing theories which have been logically derived from evidence by generating testable hypotheses from the theory It can be seen that the scientific method sometime draws upon the strengths of other methods like empiricism and pure reasonQWhat are the Stages of Scientific Research AAssess the evidence develop a theory derive a testable hypothesis design an experiment to test hypothesis examine the data collected conduct an appropriate statistical test of hypothesis assess any alternate explanations of the results draw conclusions about the outcome relate conclusions to theory and publish findingsQWhat is the basic aim of the Experimental Method and how is this achieved AThe basic aim of the experimental method is to determine whether the independent variable has the cause or effect on the dependent variable that we expect it to have This is achieved by manipulating the independent variable and measuring the effects of this manipulation on the dependent variableQName the different types of variation in the independent variable A Presence vs absence level of presentation classificationQWhat are the different types of experimental manipulation A Experimental manipulation which involves actively changing something and can be event the event experienced by participants or instructional different instructions given to participants Also individual differences manipulation which we cannot control and is predeterminedQWhich method of experimental manipulation is better for determining internal validity AExperimental manipulation typically results in more certainty about internal validitycertainty of causation than individual differencesQWhat is the purpose of conducting a pilot study AA pilot study can help establish the sample size needed help identify any confounds identify any carryover effects in RM designs and ensure the apparatus is suitable QWhat types of designs can you utilise in research ARepeated measures design or within groups design where the same subjects are exposed to every level of the independent variable Between groups design where different groups of subjects receive different levels of the independent variable Mixed design which utilises both A full factorial design is where there is more than one independent variable and can be all repeated between or mixed design
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