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Hist 1001 Full notes SEcond semester.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

• A close friend to henry, Sir. Thomas More refused to support Henry’s demand for divorce or take the oath for supremacy, in 1544 More was beheaded, his martyrdom lead to him being a saint in the church • Henry did little to inform the English church that he was ahead of them, he opposed reforms • Henry, rather than the Pope was now in church, Church of England, Protestant church • The reformation of England was more about politics of ruler than the religious aspect, everything mostly stayed the same • Many English protestants believed that the protestant church was too much like the Catholics -> Puritans, they wanted their church reformed along protestant lines -> not happy with English church • These people wanted to purify, get rid of stained glass windows, etc • Most of them will stay in England, but some will move to America • 1533, Anne Boleyn had daughter together who would become Queen Elizabeth I • Jane Seymour then gave birth to a son for him • Married 4 more times after Anne Boleyn • Following Henry’s death, in charge of Edward VI, after Edward’s premature death, his half sister Mary (daughter of Catherine of Aragon) became queen • Mary I was devoutly Catholic, under her reign, reforms of Henry VIII and Edward were thrown out, England was once again Catholic under authority of Pope • Now it was turn of protestants to feel wrath of once against Catholic • Phillip the II, King of Spain became her husband before she died • Elizabeth became the queen, she ruled for 45 years and did not get married, known as “Virgin Queen” • She governed in her own right • She had freedom to navigate complex disputes in Europe without being under the thumb of a man • Under her rule, England prospered, became Protestant again • For those whom religious question was not a problem, her law was a welcome relief -> peaceful stable, prosperous time • Power would be able to be projected abroad • Conflicts between the nations would take on a religious cast -> Phillip II spain sent armada of 200 ships to take England, his reason was to restore Catholicism to English • But both times the attacks failed, and they saw it as a sign from Protestant God • Church understood it had a serious problem • Get people to come back to catholic church • Council of Trent imposed reform on clergy -> required them to be visible to their flocks • Local bishops had more power over the clergy • Council required that priests be more carefully selected, educational and monitored • All of these efforts are known as the counter reformation (Catholic church’s response) • Council did not budge when it came to theological matters • Good work and faith are both necessary to become close to God • Supported issuing of indulgences • There needed to be a new religious order, the Society of Jesus founded by Ignatius of Loyola, they were soldiers of Christ: the Jesuits
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