PSCI 2101 Politics of Global South REVIEW.doc

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 2101
Professor
Andrea Chandler

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PSCI2101 Review 1. Democracy Definition: Joseph Schumpeter: democracy is a method for ppl to choose political leadership (ppl vote for govt) - Ingleheart and Wetzel -> More economic development, the more pressures for democracy - A democracy doesn’t have to be highly developed (India, for example has an established democracy even though it does not fit conventional means. The more specialized the economy and more educated the population, the more freedom is needed. Hence why affluent countries are democracies Economy is likely to increasingly clash with the lack of democracy. China as an example: • Tianmen square ->pressure to become democratic • China is successful with Welfare state but weak with environmental policy • Do not respond to social pressure ← Eastern European reforms is argued as the first kind of movement towards environmental movements What democracy is: Robert Dahl: 7 characteristics of government 1) Control over govt decisions= in elected officials 2) Free fair freq elections 3) All adults have right to vote 4) All adults have right to run for office 5) Freedom of expression 6) Alternative sources of info available and free 7) Everyone has RIGHT to form parties etc How are they formed? Barrington Moore= Industrialization gives rise to democracy (countries who had rule of law+ accountability BEFORE industrialization= easier transition) Britain Ishiyama wrote… th - Magna carta 1215 13 century (King abusing everyone, ppl angry so he brings magna carta in to limit his own power) no one is above the law including king - Political centralization and National identity: The tudors and the crusades - Transformation of feudalism, rise of democratic impulse - Growth of trade with the east - Wool production (depopulates and creates the proto-proletariat) - Rise in exernal demand for wool= no more noble feudalism but profit driven - Accountability of kings - Industrialization gave rise to middle and lower classer What makes democracies survive? Larry Diamond writes, - It is a cardinal principal of empirical democratic theory that hard econ times mean hard times for democracy, particularly when it’s feral and fragile - Disproves this: Global recession 2008 (why haven’t Greece, Italy spain) no democracies failed Three reasons: 1) Hardest hit countries have been wealthy and industrialized democracies 2) Defeat of elected government (kick out) BUT DEMOCRACY STILL THERE 3) The breakdowns of democracy that have occurred have occurred BEFORE recession (bad internal governance not bad global conditions) - Circumstances other than econ matter (corruption, arbitrary rule) - 1974 global democratic expansion began= Third wave and has persisted since - We see a decline in democracy because 1/5 democracies that exist in 3 wave have been reversed - A lot of them have been strategic important states (Nigeria, Russia, bangledesh, Pakistan) - Worrisome, level of freedom in decline - Voters keep the system to punish or reward the leaders Third wave failed democracies 5 characteristics: 1) Tend to be lower middle income 2) Rank low on world bank’s good governance skill 3) Poli unstable poli motivated violence 4) Deeply split by class (no unison ethnicity etc) 5) Abuse of power Nathan Converse: “must put cap, limit or constraints on executive power to increase the chances of democracy to survive” -> abritaray rule - IN LR democracies need to improve qual of state institutions, boost accountability and bolster rule of law Globalization and Multiple Level Governance: - United Nations - Human Rights Watch - Transparancy International - Encourage accountability in the government - And act as the judicial power - WTO & WB, IMF - European Union, has its own council, commerce, kind of like a government, states within the EU have countries that govern themselves. 2. How has the role in society in politics changed? Ronald Ingleheart and Christian Wetzel - Post materialism: people stop being more focused on the material (food, shelter, security) and you worry about first world problems (environment, political participation and individual freedom) - More improved now, we are now concerned about everything around us - After our concerns with materials -> reach a point where our substance are all satisfied - Go past subsistence - More time to think about politics and environment - May not always focus on things such as politics Change in political parties: -Two readings -> post 9/11 -Young people who were most impressionable in 9/11 -They were more likely to grasp civic and mutual responsibility -More youth interested in Politics -Are more people less interested in politics because there is more emphasize on material items? -2008 -> Obama campaigners exploited technology -Talk about the haves and the have nots -> haves are the upper middle class families -> have not are lower working class -Lower class youth were less involved while more of the rich people got involved -More of a wealth divides in the states and other countries -Weapon of the Strong? -Why internet may or may not work -More Internet may not mean more people participating, digital divide -Socioeconomic status -Internet is changing, new way of communication Georgina Waylen -Intersectionality --> comparative politics of gender and how it affects political institutions - Analyze how politics/ integration of gender in comp poli should be split between m/f 3. How has state changed Welfare state: England USA China India Changes in social movements: -Can be related to change in political power Neoliberlism -Different reforms, runs down to making things free -> neoliberalism is more of an individual and social policy, etc abortion, secularism, individual - Privatization: State takes activities controlled by state and creates a private enterprise -Welfare state reform: State would be expensive, hard to maintain, not always working -Tax reforms: Reducing taxes on enterprise on wealthier people, inhibit economic growth -Margaret Thatcher argued people would be dependent on state, reducing state. -Pearson: People attached to welfare state programs, hard to cut -Social contract: People promised these benefits -Anderson; social welfare programs are an investment in long run -An Improve readiness of children -Low cost childcare, women are able to work Example: Raegenomics: Ex. During cold war, spent a lot of money on the cold war in space Minimalist State that respects the law of nature -> Is laissez faire in terms of economics -> privatize and liberalize the market. State mandated control of oil -> state control is nice but usually inefficient Better to have free market -Modern, social and classical liberalism -Social program, economic GNP is not the sole driver of human development (HDI) -In china, HDI is much higher than India even though they have similar growth rate -Although both have growth rate, India is behind -Comparison of China -India’s Li
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