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Political Science 2102B
Final Examination template and review questions
Instructions: This exam is in three (3) parts. Read questions carefully. Answer questions from all
three parts. You have three (3) hours.
Things to think about in answers: Culture, Colonial period, postcolonial politics, economic
**Essay Question 6: Talks about countries experiencing revolutions on their road to independence.
Most the revolutions I’m thinking of happened when the country was already independent(i.e.
China and the Chinese Revolution in 1946 or Cultural Revolution in 1966). Any ideas for this
Identify naming author or country where appropriate and state the significance of six (6) of the
following terms 6x5 or 30 marks 30 minutes
3 sentence definition, one sentence on significance
Study terms (10 will be on final exam)
Leaderless-No head of government. Pre-colonial societies in Nigeria did not really have a
state system. Example is in 2010 in Nigeria when the president Umaru Musa
Yar’Aduawas in a coma and the public didn’t know because the government hid it.
Referring to the headless societies in traditional Nigeria before colonies, like Igbo that
lacked executive leadership, instead villages and clans were governed by consensus or
committee. Allowed some ethnic groups to escape upheaval of colonialism and retained
autonomy, not use to political authority though (Kesselman, Kruger, Joseph; Kew and
New capital city in Nigeria. Tried to unify the country’s ethnic and religious tensions.
Tried to mitigate these tensions.
·put in the center of Nigeria claimed as a neutral location for all of the religious and ethnic
divisions; signified as neutrality and national unity
3. Enrique Pena Nieto
current president of mexico, a member of the PRI
· -he brought the PRI (institutional revolutionary party) back into power,
· What significant? The dominance of the PRI, they ruled for 71 years then were taken
over by the PAN (national action party) for the past 12 years so him coming back into power. This all had some protest because the PRI had become a symbol of corruption,
repression, economic mismanagement etc
· -Lots of protests, student movements
Bharatiya Janata Party - A right-leaning Hindu nationalist party that adopted an anti-
muslim stance. It helped support and orchestrate a campaign of terror against the
Muslim population which resulted in 2000 deaths. Due to its leading role in anti-
muslim riots it was defeated in 2004 and 2009’s national parliamentary elections. In
recent years it has played down its hindu-nationalist platform.
5. Bolsa Familia
Bolsa Família is a social welfare program of the Brazilian government. Bolsa Família
provides financial aid to poor Brazilian families; if they have children, families must
ensure that the infants attend school and are vaccinated. The program attempts to both
reduce short-term poverty by direct cash transfers and fight long-term poverty by
increasing human capital among the poor through conditional cash transfers. It also
works to give free education to children who cannot afford to go to school to show the
importance of education.
· - Created by Lula da Silva in 2003
6. Café com leite “coffee with milk”
Café com leite politics was a term that referred to the domination of Brazilian
politics under the Old Republic (1889-1930) by the landed gentries of São Paulo
(dominated by the coffee industry) and Minas Gerais (dominated by dairy
interests). São Paulo's coffee interests were by far the strongest of the pair.
7. Cardoso Plan
· When he was minister of finance he introduced the Plano Real (Real Plan) that aimed
to reduce the high rates of inflation that Brazil was experiencing. The plan was very
effective and helped the working poor.
· After the success of that plan he ran for President and won
· Neoliberalism and right wing politics
· Portuguese name for colonels
• Colonels essentially dominated the republic who were local notables, who were able
through patron client relationships to gain the vote and get themselves elected
· Paid people to vote for certain people and they got status from this
-Common practice in Brazil during the Old Republic (1889-1930).
Where the executives interact directly with vertically organized interests. Significance: in
Mexico in the 1930s the president used a corporatist system to build popular support for
himself. Used corporatism to get people involved in democracy. 10. Council of Guardian
The upper house in Iran, made up of senior religious clerics. Mixture of government and
religious order. They are appointed, not elected. They are one of the most powerful bodies
in Iran. They have a say in who can run for president and whether or not to hold
referendums. They also play a big role in the power structure. Significance: Shows the
importance they put on religion, they are trying to protect the masses from non-Islamic
values, protecting religious values. Religious leaders have their own interests that
11. Dessarollo Estabilizador
· Stabilizing development(in English) was an economic model in Mexico between 1953-
· The peso and the US dollar exchange rate being stabilized, it was the main goal of
economic policy, they used it to control inflation
· ISI stabilizing growth
12. Dilma Rousseff
First female president of Brazil since January 2011. She became a socialist during her
youth, and following the 1964 coup d'état joined various left-wing and Marxist urban
guerrilla groups that fought against the military dictatorship. Rousseff was eventually
captured and jailed between 1970 and 1972, where she was reportedly tortured. She
founded the Democratic Labour Party (PDT). In 2000, after an internal dispute in the
Dutra cabinet, she left the PDT and joined the Workers' Party
13. Estado Novo
· Brazil from 1937-45
· Called the Vargas Era(president at the time), the time when Vargas imposes
authoritarian Constitution in a coup d'etát, and shuts down Congress, assuming
14. Felipe Calderon
· 2006-2012, Mexican president, a member of PAN
· He brought in the military to fight the Mexican drug cartels and took down 1/7 in the
first few weeks of the crackdown
· Worked closely with the outbreak of H1N1 virus
· Won lots of awards from other countries and met Obama
15. Goodluck Jonathan -
14th head of state and current president of Nigeria.
·Incumbent president of Nigeria
· Christian southerner
· Run on Anti-corruption platform
· took over because former president was in a coma
16. Green Revolution A strategy for increasing agricultural (specifically food) production, involving improved
seeds, irrigation and abundant use of fertilizers. Significant because it made India self-
sufficient in food and even lead to them becoming a food exporter. Benefits of the green
revolution were uneven - production increased sharply in some areas and other areas
were left behind. The intensive use of fertilizers depleted the soil of nutrients and
farmers were forced to buy machinery causing them to borrow large sums of money with
high interest rates.
17. Hausa-Fulani- A major ethnic group in Nigeria. Though they are different tribes, they
are often grouped together. They come from the Northern part of Nigeria. Former
president (Shuhu Musa Yar’adua) who died in 2010 was fulani.
18. Household responsibility system was a practice in the People's Republic of China, first
adopted in agriculture in 1981 and later extended to other sectors of the economy, by
which local managers are held responsible for the profits and losses of an enterprise.
This system partially supplanted the egalitarian distribution method, whereby the state
assumed all profits and losses.
In traditional Maoist organization of the rural economy and that of other collectivised
programs, farmers are given by the government a quota of goods to produce. They
receive compensation for meeting the quota. Going beyond the quota rarely produced a
sizeable economic reward. In the early 1980s peasants were given drastically reduced
quotas. What food they grew beyond the quota was sold in the free market at unregulated
prices. This system became an instant success, quickly causing one of the largest
increases in standard-of-living for such a large number of people in such a short time.
This system maintained quotas, and thus the element of socialist societies termed in
China the " iron rice-bowl" (in which the state ensured food and employment).
19. Hu Jintao: Last Chairman of the PRC, known for conservative administration,
20. Indian Administrative Service
An elite group of top bureaucrats. The recruitment was through a very competitive exam.
There are more candidates that apply for it than are actually chosen because it offers
excellent pay, and a prestigious title. India’s civil service, a highly professional and
talented group of people who run the government on a day-to-day basis. Sig: used to be
attractive to young people, but now it isn’t because most young people want to go abroad
so they do engineering or business. Now there are high levels of corruption (loyalty) and
the level of professionalism has significantly decreased. It is the backbone of the Indian
21. Indirect rule
· Used to describe the way Britain ruled over Nigeria and India
· Used local traditional rulers and political structures to help support the colonial governing
· The traditional rulers took care of the day to day administration while Britain took over the
external affair (taxation, communication)
· Supreme Leader of Iran · Tension between SL Khamenei and President Ahmadinejad
· the relationship between the supreme leader and president don’t get along; The SL has not
approved many of the presidents stuff and they basically publically snip at each other
· Has suggested that Presidency be abolished and Parliamentary system (with Prime Minister)
· The biggest challenge to his leadership were the 2009 election protests because he supported
· a form of political and government corruption where the government exists to increase the
personal wealth and political power of its officials and the ruling class at the expense of the
wider population, often without pretense of honest service
· This type of government corruption is often achieved by the embezzlement of state funds.
· associated with corrupt forms of authoritarian governments, dictatorships, oligarchies, military
· found in developing countries, Nigeria, India, China, Iran
24. Lazaro Cardenas
· president of Mexico from 1934-40; part of the PRI
· given credit by socialists for expanding the distribution of land to the peasants, establishing
new welfare programs for the poor, and nationalizing the railroad and petroleum industries
25. License raj
· refers to the elaborate licenses, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to
set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990
· this system was the result of India having a planned economy where the economy is controlled
by the state
· President of Brazil and said to be the greatest one, he was very well liked and was one of
Time’s most influential people
· Achievements: conservative fiscal policies, progressive social policies, 11 mill families
receive the Bolsa Familia, minimum wage grew, created lots of jobs and lifted people out of
· Successor was Dilma Rousseff
27. Manmohan Singh
1990s: Finance Minister to Prime Minister Rao. Developed model of economic
development to move India towards economic liberalization from 1992 to 1997. This
model included many reforms including the removal of tariff barriers. Became Prime
Minister of India in mid-2000s
28. National Party
· Former political party of South Africa
· Promoted Afrikaner culture – white South African
· Began the Apartheid Significance -
· Widespread human rights violations
· Creation of Separate Development
29. Nehru Dynasty
— Nehru India’s first Prime Minister with tremendous challenges out of partition
—Played a leading role in the development of the Non Aligned Movement (NAM)
— Committed to non-nuclear proliferation, democratic socialism
Dies in office, 1964. Successor Lal Shashtri dies two years later, but not before starting
nuclear program with a Canadian reactor
30. Nelson Mandela
South Africa’s first black president. Came into power in 1994 (until 1999) First
democratically elected President. anti-apartheid revolutionary. His commitment and
devotion towards democracy played a large role in South African Politics.
31. Olesegun Obasanjo -
· Won the ’99 election, he was a former military ruler and was head of the People Democratic
Party (PDP) (99-07)
· Re-elected in 2003
· Wanted to alleviate poverty, reduce state corruption and establish a democratic system
· He tried to change the constitution so he could stay in power longer but was not successful
32. Open Policy
· China gradually opens markets, encourages foreign investment
· Belief that to modernize China's industry and boost its economy it needed to welcome foreign
· industry shifted heavily to encourage and support foreign trade & investment
33. PAN(national action party)
· One of the three main political parties in Mexico
· The party's political platform is generally considered Right-wing
· Advocating free enterprise, privatization, smaller government, and liberal reforms as well as
opposition to same-sex unions and abortion.
· Sigtnificance? Felipe Calderon
· .In its present form, patrimonialism refers to a political system in which state officers
appropriate their offices for personal benefits and those of their supporters
· Political offices are regarded as fiefdoms by the official and the exercise of public authority is
utilised to serve their interest.
35. PDP (Nigeria) -
Largest political party in Nigeria. They have ruled Nigeria since independence.
· Peoples Democratic Party in Nigeria · Right wing; Goodluck Jonathan and Olusegun Obasanjo were part of the party
· Like the free market
· Made Islamic law only for Muslims
· It is the Mexican state-owned petroleum company
· Because it is nationalized, Mexico is able to fund social programs.
· Without this money, Mexican economy would not be in good shape.
· Nigeria- granting state powers to trusted clients in return for support
· Patterns of political behaviour that rest on the justification that official state offices should be
utilized for the personal benefit of officeholders as well as of their support group or clients
· the form of patron-client politics that legitimizes the exploitation of government power for the
benefit of office holders and their followers
38. Predatory state
· A state in which those with political power prey on the people and the nations resources to
enrich themselves rather than using their power to promote national development
· Contrast with development state, basically a weak state
India and china
39. PRI -
· The institutional revolutionary party
· Ahead of government currently
·Considered socialist – but IS NOT
· Currently the party in power in Mexico under Nieto
· Cartel problem
· Buying votes – through cards
· Yo Soy 132 – movement
· Monopoly of the media and how it effected the outcome of the 2012 election
40. Rentier State -
· a country that obtains much of its revenue from the export of oil or other natural
· Nigeria – hard to promote civil society and democratization
41. Resources Curse -
· The concept that revenue derived from abundant natural resources, such as oil, often
brings unforeseen ailments to countries
· Domestic problems that stem from this, human rights violation, internal conflict,
corruption, excessive borrowing, lack of diversification – I.e.Nigeria
42. Sani Abacha-Nigerian military head of state and dictator. His regime is popularly
known as one of the most corrupt and he is known for his human rights violations. 43. Scheduled castes and tribes
44. Separate development
46. Structural Adjustment Program- The SAP is a development model by the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. It consists of a set of macroeconomic
policies designed for developing countries to encourage the structural adjustment of their
economies by minimizing government intervention and promoting market competition.
The SAPs reflect the liberal ideology and neo-liberal theory of these institutions
47. Supreme Leader -
· Refers to a figure in the highest leadership position of an entity, group, organization or
state, which exercises strong or all-powerful authority over it.
· Iran – the highest ranking political and religious authority in the constitution of Iran
48. Truth and Reconciliation Commissions -
· a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the abolition of
· Witnesses were the victims of gross human rights violations
· Used to help move the country forward, could not do so without confronting the past
· Some argue is it not successful, on an individual level it
· Governments cannot be held accountable
49. Varna (Caste System) -
· The caste system in India establish by Hindu concepts
· Organized by a hierarchy of castes, fixed by birth
· Rules that governed daily life such as eating, who to marry, jobs, etc.
· Became formally rigid under British Raj – some argue
· Normalizes inequality
50. Velayat e faqih
Part II 40% 1 hour 10 minutes
Everyone must answer the following question referring to at least two(2) countries on our
Part III 30% answer one (1) question.
You must answer using a country in addition to or different from the two referred to in Part II.
All of the essay questions in parts II and III of the final examination will be drawn from this list.
The wording may differ slightly on the final. 4 or five of these questions will be on the final
1. A number of the countries we have studied have suffered periods of military intervention and
coups. Using one of these countries explain the circumstances leading to military intervention
and where democracy was re-established, the circumstances that made this possible. -Brazil and Nigeria have both had military interventions. The most important military
intervention to keep in mind in terms of Nigeria is the 1983 military intervention, where the
military struck yet again to end a series of ugly corruption, economic mismanagement, and the
inept leadership of civilians. This era of economic reform was known as the buhari regime (after
muhammadu buhari). The attempt of the buhari government was to solve the oil crisis that
occurred in the 70’s, where the Nigerian government spent excessively without allocating their
2. A number of the countries we have studied are blessed with a wealth of natural resources for
export, and yet, these resource exporting countries do not distribute this wealth in a way that
benefits the majority of the populations and indeed often fall behind in development when
compared with less richly endowed neighbours? Why is resource wealth not a consistent basis
for prosperity and development? Explain using countries on our syllabus.
Mexico and oil. Nigeria and oil. Brazil!-huge resource exporter of coffee and sugarcane.
Nigeria is an excellent example here - during the oil boom of the 70’s the government was pressured
to spend excessively. Even at the height of oil revenues, it’s spending outstripped the revenue.
Moreover, much of it’s investment was inappropriately allocated to inefficient and unproductive
projects, and more importantly the agricultural sector was almost completely alienated. When the
oil crisis hit in the early 80’s, Nigeria had nothing to fall back on, since oil made up 90%+ of it’s
revenue. What was once a sustainable agrarian economy with huge potential was now deeply in
debt, more vulnerable than ever to the chronic political instability that’s characterized Nigeria’s
post-independence history, as well as the international economy. This phenomenon - this
paradox - of resource wealth and economic stagnation is called “Dutch Disease”.
3. Some of the countries on our list have developed strong governance on the basis of strong
political parties while others have not. Choose one of the countries and explain why it has
established strong political parties or why it has not. Explain the impact of political parties on the
stability of the political system and their relationship to governance in relations to one of the
countries on our syllabus.
strong political parties: CHINA (communist party of China). MEXICO and
institutionalised revolution party. INDIA and congress party. NIGERIA and the PDP–
relate these parties to governance
Guatemala has a long history of weak political parties, due in large part to the omnipresence
of armed forces and the influence they exert on the government, as well as the
suppression and intimidation (historically often violent) of civil society groups, trade
unions, activists etc. The toll this history has taken on governance can’t be overstated -
faith in democracy is extremely low because of the continuing levels of corruption and
clientelism among government ranks. In a 1996 poll that contained important reforms, the
turnout was less than 20% and it was defeated. Because a congressional majority is
practically unheard of, political parties have to rely on coalitions, which have often been
made out of convenience and opportunistic self-interest than ideological benefit to
Guatemalans. Corruption, drug-trafficking, high rates of homicide and violent crime
against women, as well as the continuing presence of organized crime visible in the
Mafia-style network of serving and past military officials all remain strong negative
forces against political party integrity, democracy, and development.
4. Some post-colonial states are able to establish a strong national identity and use this to mobilize
more effective state capacity while others are not. What enables a state to establish a strong national identity? Use one of the countries on our list to discuss the factors required for
successful nation building.
India, Brazil and China all have- But Nigeria has NOT, as seen through civil war.
5. All of the countries on our syllabus started off as agrarian. In some cases farm production made
a significant contribution to development and in others the agricultural sector has been stagnant
and even declined. Discuss the contribution of success or failure agricultural policies to the
6. Some of the countries on our syllabus experienced revolutions on their road to independence,
some did not. Are there differences between the countries that have experienced social
revolutions and those that did not? Is either path more conducive to democracy or national
China had a Revolution....Two countries that DIDN’T are Brazil and Nigeria.
7. Each country on our syllabus has built its economy by negotiating relationships with external
actors through international trade and investment. How do different countries manage their
relationship with the developed countries, international financial institutions and other
developing countries. What factors do you believe enable some countries to negotiate this
relationship better and what factors leave countries weak and vulnerable to international forces?
What is the domestic basis on which countries can deal with international challenges?
India & Mexico or Brazil
Prepare this one for two countries….choose your time frame but similar time frame for both.
8. Patron-client relations form a pattern of political relationships in a number of the countries
we have studied. Compare the ways in which patron-client relations have influenced political
development. How do patron-client relations relate to diversity and political corruption? Are
patron-client relations compatible with democracy and political stability?
Nigeria and Brazil are good examples.
9. All of the countries we have studied have had some history of authoritarianism and at least,
democratic aspirations. Using countries we have studied, explore the relationship between
political economy and democracy or authoritarianism. Is there any pattern that you can see in
the relationship between economic development and democracy or authoritarianism?
10. A number of countries on our syllabus have had to deal with ethnic or religious diversity. What
has been the impact on democratic development in that country?
Nigeria, India and South Africa are all good examples. China can be an example too...they
have dealt with diversity in a very unique way.
Iran is also one of the most prominent examples of the relationship between religion and the
development of democratic political institutions. I would contrast Iran and South Africa,
paying close attention to the role that ethnicity/religion had to play in the kinds of
leadership they have experienced. PART I: TERMS – IDENTIFY AND STATE ITS SIGNIFICANCE; IDENTIFY COUNTRY
1. Acephalous: Refers to the idea of no head or leader in a society. It can be referred to
societies which lacks political leaders or hierarchies. These societies are typically small-
scale, organized into bands or tribes that make decisions through consensus decision
making rather than appointing permanent chiefs or kings. Example can be referred to
Nigeria, when its president was in coma for months and therefore the country lacking
leader during those months.
2. Abuja: the current capit