Contact with other parts of the world (trade routes) Ethnic: ethnicity was fluid - weren"t strict identities; malleable. Gender: women had more political rights; introduction of european patriarchal society changed that. Categories: cattle farmers, hunters/gatherers, fishing communities, urban areas. Homelands act (south africa) - each ethnicity would get their own homeland. First contact around 1471 by the portuguese. 1502 - atlantic slave trade - 1807, abolition of slavery. Slavery replaced by legitimate commerce; more profitable to trade with africans than dealing in the slave trade; enlightenment values. Primary products (promotion of primary products; imported manufactured items) Export-driven infrastructure; not built out of good will but to help their export driven economy. Local entrepreneurial class; absence after colonialism - state takes on the role of entrepreneur. Needs capital to start up in the first place. Authoritarian state - people imbibing respect for authority. Patriarchy - women lacking a political and economic role. Traditional beliefs/religions done away with; introduction of christianity, baptism.