POLI 3311 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Atlantic Slave Trade, Periphery Countries, Subsistence Economy

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Sept 21
Nature of Africa:
-Kingdoms
-Contact with other parts of the world (trade routes)
-Rural than urban
-Ethnic: Ethnicity was fluid - weren’t strict identities; malleable
-Religion: Islam, traditional religions
-Gender: women had more political rights; introduction of European patriarchal society
changed that
-Categories: cattle farmers, hunters/gatherers, fishing communities, urban areas
Homelands Act (South Africa) - each ethnicity would get their own homeland
Europeans:
-first contact around 1471 by the Portuguese
-1502 - Atlantic slave trade - 1807, abolition of slavery
-Slavery replaced by legitimate commerce; more profitable to trade with Africans than
dealing in the slave trade; Enlightenment values
-1884-1885 - “Scramble for Africa”/Berlin Conference
Consequences of Colonialism:
-Brought it into the world economy
-Primary products (promotion of primary products; imported manufactured items)
-Subordinate partners, which contributed to underdevelopment
-Subsistence economy
-Export-driven infrastructure; not built out of good will but to help their export driven
economy
-Local entrepreneurial class; absence after colonialism - state takes on the role of
entrepreneur. Needs capital to start up in the first place
-Became a ‘dumping ground’ market
Dependency Theory -
Political:
-Lack of leadership
-Artificial state (indirect rule)
-Authoritarian state - people imbibing respect for authority
-Patriarchy - women lacking a political and economic role
-Military
-Drew borders
Social:
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-Tension: social mobility
-Social groups
-Traditional beliefs/religions done away with; introduction of Christianity, baptism
-Psychological impact of colonialism - foreign seen as better
-Language- loss of language = loss of identity; economic standing (poor can’t afford to
go through the education system and learn the new language)
Nationalism:
-Promises to soldiers (independence for fighting)
-Broke down racist values as well as ethnic lines
-Psychological barrier broken - took down the view of the “invulnerable European”
-Soldiers came back and felt they were on equal footing - dying, shed blood just like the
Europeans
-Soldiers learned discipline/organization brought to the struggle for independence
-Social services available to them were poor
-UN formation [peace, diplomacy, right to self-determination]
-Wave of decolonization (India, Sri Lank, throughout Asia); incentive for African’s to
seek self-determination
-Changed global superpowers (US/USSR); knocked out colonial powers
-US Marshall Plan - help Europe reconstruct
-Pan-Africanism/education
-Urbanization - easier to mobilize, facilitate ideas
-Voluntary associations
Sept 28 - Development Theory and African Industrialization
The Development Project in Theory and Practice: A Review of its Shifting Dynamics
-idea of development was invented in the 1940s as part of a geopolitical project to
liberate countries freed from colonialism away from communism
-drawn out by capitalist democracies of Western Europe and North America
-development was conceived in conditional terms as relative progress in per capita
economic growth and in structural terms as industrialization and modernization
-Development entails:
-an increase in the rate of savings and investment - the accumulation of physical
and financial capital
-investment of this capital in industry
-in the absence of weakness of an endogenous capitalist class, the state
assumes the basic functions of capital - investment, entrepreneurship and
management
-nationalization of economic enterprises in strategic industries and sectors
-an inward orientation of production, which, together with a secular increase in
wages and salaries, will expand the domestic market
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-regulation of this and other markets and the protection of the firms that produce
the market, insulating them from the pressures of the world economy
-modernization of the production apparatus, the state and social institutions,
reorienting them towards values and norms that are functional for economic
growth
-This approach assumed that economic growth would be accompanied by
the adoption of Western cultural and institutional practices
The 1970’s
-approaches to development identifiable today emerged
-Left believed in radical, systemic change. Marxism/Latin American structuralism to
create “dependency theory”
-Development/underdevelopment as two sides of the same coin - socioeconomic
conditions were linked to the position that a country happened to occupy in the world
capitalist system
-Development in the metropole was predicated on the underdevelopment of countries
on the periphery - “the development of underdevelopment” (Frank 1967)
-Reformists: relations of dependency are neither inherently exploitative nor block the
possibility of periphery capitalist development; they just create a situation that favours
a dependent or distorted pattern of capitalist development
-Right criticized state-centered solutions to developmental problems and began to
argue for global free trade as the engine for economic growth
-Development would only address the problems of the poor when it involved the poor,
i.e. local community organizations
-Mainstream development program became liberal reformist (enhanced role of the
state):
-programs that would establish the social conditions of development (education,
health, etc)
-poverty-oriented strategy designed to meet the basic needs of the poor, based
on;
-reforms designed to improve access to society’s productive resources (land
reform, etc.)
-redistributive ‘growth with equity’ policies via taxation designed to redistribute
more equitably market-generated incomes
-an integrated program of rural development that corrected for the urban bias of
government policies as well as the neglect of agriculture
1970’s - “Growth With Equity” model advanced in the context of an extensive/ongoing
debate on the role of inequality in the growth and development process and the relevant
policy option priorities and tradeoffs (i.e. growth with efficiency, equity or equality)
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