Glossary of Terms

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Management (MGH)
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Accommodating. A conflict management style in which one cooperates with the other party, while not asserting ones own interests. Active listening. A technique for improving the accuracy of information reception by paying close attention to the sender. Actorobserver effect. The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actors behaviour differently. Additive tasks. Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members. Advanced information technology. The generation, aggregation, storage, modification, and speedy transmission of information made possible by the advent of computers and related devices. Affective commitment. Commitment based on identification and involvement with an organization. Anchoring effect. The inadequate adjustment of subsequent estimates from an initial estimate that serves as an anchor. Attitude. A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Attribution. The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples behaviour. Autonomy. The freedom to schedule ones own work activities and decide work procedures. Avoiding. A conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of ones own interests and low cooperation with the other party. Behavioural plasticity theory. People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem. Body language. Nonverbal communication by means of a senders bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location. Boundary roles. Positions in which organizational members are required to interact with members of other organizations or with the public. Boundaryless organization. An organization that removes vertical, horizontal, and external barriers so that employees, managers, customers, and suppliers can work together, share ideas, and identify the best ideas for the organization. Bounded rationality. A decision strategy that relies on limited information and that reflects time constraints and political considerations. Brainstorming. An attempt to increase the number of creative solution alternatives to problems by focusing on idea generation rather than evaluation. Bullying. Repeated negative behaviour directed toward one or more individuals of lower power or status that creates a hostile work environment. Bureaucracy. Max Webers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence. Burnout. Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment among those who work with people. Career development. An ongoing process in which individuals progress through a series of stages that consist of a unique set of issues, themes, and tasks. Central tendency. The tendency to assign most ratees to middle-range job performance categories. Central traits. Personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver. Centralization. The extent to which decision-making power is localized in a particular part of an organization. Chain of command. Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships. Change agents. Experts in the application of behavioural science knowledge to organizational diagnosis and change. Change. The implementation of a program or plan to move the organization or its members to a more satisfactory state. www.notesolution.comCharisma. The ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers and thus have the potential for strong influence among them. Classical viewpoint. An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making. Coercive power. Power derived from the use of punishment and threat. Cognitive biases. Tendencies to acquire and process information in an error-prone way. Collaborating. A conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation. Communication. The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver. Competing. A conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes cooperation. Complexity. The extent to which an organization divides labour vertically, horizontally, and geographically. Compliance. Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment. Compressed workweek. An alternative work schedule in which employees work fewer than the normal five days a week but still put in a normal number of hours per week. Compromise. A conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation. Computer-mediated communication (CMC). Communication that relies on computer technology to facilitate information exchange. Confirmation bias. The tendency to seek out information that conforms to ones own definition of or solution to a problem. Conflict stimulation. A strategy of increasing conflict to motivate change. Congruence. A condition in which a persons words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message. Conjunctive tasks. Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member. Consensus cues. Attribution cues that reflect how a persons behaviour compares with that of others. Conservative shift. The tendency for groups to make less risky decisions than the average risk initially advocated by their individual members. Consideration. The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees. Consistency cues. Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in some behaviour over time. Contingency approach. An approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation. Contingency Theory. Fred Fiedlers theory that states that the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence. Continuance commitment. Commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization. Contrast effects. Previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewers perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants. Control group. A group of research subjects who have not been exposed to the experimental treatment. Convergent validity. When there is a strong relationship between different measures of the same variable. Coordination. A process of facilitating timing, communication, and feedback among work tasks. Core self-evaluations. A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth. Correlational research. Research that attempts to measure variables precisely and examine relationships among these variables without introducing change into the research setting. Creativity. The production of novel but potentially useful ideas. Cross-functional teams. Work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service. Cultural context. The cultural information that surrounds a communication episode. Customer departmentation. Relatively self-contained units deliver an organizations products or services to specific customer groups. Decision making. The process of developing a commitment to some course of action.
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