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txtbook ch5

Management (MGH)
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Chapter Five- Theories of Work Motivation
Why Study Motivation?
The need for increase productivity to be globally competitive
Need for rapid changes that contemporary organization are undergoing
Stable systems are replaced by requirement s for flexibility and attention to customers
which requires high levels of initiative
Initiative depends n motivation
What is Motivation?
Person works hard, direct his/her behaviour toward appropriate outcomes
Basic Characteristics of Motivation
Motivation-the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal
The strength of the persons work-related behaviour amount of effort exhibits on the job
Persistency applied to the effort of the working task
Cannot work hard for two hours, then goof off for six hours
Effort and persistence refer to quantity of work an individual producesquality crucial also
All motivated behaviour have goal/objective which it is directed
Motivated ppl act to enhance organizational objectives ie. High productivity, attendance,
May also be motivated by goal contrary to organization: absenteeism, sabotage

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Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
People are motivated by factors in external environment (pay), or be self-motivated w/o
external factors
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation that stems from the direct relationship b/t worker and taskself applied
Ex. Achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence, interest in job
Freedom to make choices is intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation that stems from the work environment external o the task, usually applied
by others
Ex. pay benefits, company policies, supervision
Profit sharing and employee stock options are extrinsic motivators
The availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from
Extrinsic rewards depend on performancemotivating potential of intrinsic rewards
Making extrinsic rewards contingent on performance makes individual feel less competent
and less in control of own behaviourppl then believe that performance is controlled
by environment and perform only for moneyintrinsic motivation suffers
Motivation and Performance
Performance-extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the
objectives for the organization
General Cognitive Ability
General cognitive ability- a persons basic information processing capacities and
cognitive resources
Cognitive abilityintelligence or mental ability
Reflect individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing info and includes a
number of cognitive abilities: verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities

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Predicts learning and training success, job performance (both manual and mental)
Required ability for performance and career success
Emotional Intelligence (EI)
Emotional intelligence-ability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings
and emotions
Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and
reason about emotions, manage emotions in oneself and others
Ppl w/ EI can identify and recognize meanings of emotions and manage and regulate
emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action
Hierarchy of Emotion Skills
1.Perception of Emotions-detecting emotions
Ability to perceive emotions and id your own and others emotions
Id emotions n ppls faces and nonverbal behaviour
2.Integration and assimilation of emotions-use emotion to guide thinking
Ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and
facilitate ones thinking and reasoning
Use emotions in functional ways-making decisions and other cognitive processes
Ability to shift ones emotions to generate new emotions
Ability to shirt ones emotions and generate new emotions see different way in
different perspectives
3.Knowledge and understanding of emotions-understand how emotions
influence ppl/knowledge
Understand emotional information, determinants and consequences of emotions,
and how emotions change over time
how diff. emotions are generated over diff. situations and ppl are influenced by
4.Management of emotions
Manage own and others’ feelings and emotions and emotional relationship
Able to regulate, adjust and change own emotions and others to suit situations
Able to perceive, integrate and assimilate and understand emotions
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