reading lect sum prt 1.rtf

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Victoria Wohl

January 9th, 2012 Lecture How did Greek define themselves? By what they are not. o The way they dressed, their politics, women etc. Women were weak, men were strong. Gods are like humans but they are absolutely powerful and lived forever. Humans had to die. Dangers of comparing yourself to the other: o False or simplistic view, egotism, xenophobia and misogynistic. Tragedies Allowed for the Greeks to play the other. 2 Important facts o 1. Greece dependent on the sea if you controlled the sea, you controlled the show. o 2. Rowers were the most powerful in Athens. Greece wasnt united till the 19th century. Mycenaean and Minoan cultures Dark ages: Wide spread poverty, no written language but good verbal culture. I.E Bards who sang poetry. Iliad and the Odyssey o Fictional But Henry Schliemann found Troy using the Iliad. Archaic period = rise of wealth. Polis = city state o Different qualifications in each city defined citizens. Greece is a weak confederation of city states. Different domestic policies But- All worshipped the same gods and when Greece was threatened, they would unite. Focusing on Athens o Most powerful and literate What it meant to be Greek was different in Athens than in Sparta. Writers were male and white. Cultures reflect themselves in literature. January 11 Reading summary Thucydides Funeral oration Speech given by Pericles at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian wars. The speech begins by Pericles praising the war dead. He doesnt focus on the past of Ancient Athens but chooses to instead look at present day ancient Athens and praises the dead by glorifying the city for which they died. He moves on to address the audience. He tells them to live up to the standards the deceased have set. He reminds the audience of how hard it is to speak of the dead and then they are dismissed. Lecture Missing Teachers notes Autochthony: "being born from the earth itself" - Athenians believed both that they were born from the earth (that they were autochthonous) and that they were the children of Athena (myth of Athena and Hephaistos; Erichthonios) - This had implications for the way they viewed themselves and others. In the Archaic period, Athens was governed by aristocrats, including the aristocratic dynasty of Pisistratus. Pisistratus and his sons were exiled in 510 BCE (in an episode we will return to later in the term) and democracy was established soon afterward. Athens was a direct or radical democracy. Dmokratia = kratos (rule, sovereignty) of the dmos (the citizen body, the people) Pericles' (or Thucydides') Funeral Oration: Epitaphios Logos: annual speech in honor of those who died in war that year heroic kleos in an egalitarian, civic context some seminal qualities of the ideal Athenian: kalokagathia: "beauty and goodness," nobility (social and moral) all Athenians become elites, no division between rich and poor defined against (implicit) others: the poor unwashed dmos and the old aristocrats a (male) person who has the quality of kalokagathia is a kaloskagathos (plural: kaloikagathoi) eleutheria: all Athenians are free and masters of themselves both democracy and empire are represented in the speech as results and manifestations of this innate quality andreia: bravery, military courage, manliness Athenian andreia is innate (unlike the Spartans'), according to Pericles If andreia is a defining quality of the Athenian, can there be a female Athenian? January 16 Reading Summary Hesiod Theogony Describes the genealogy of the Greek pluralistic gods. Tells how they came to be and established rule over the cosmos. Lecture Gods and Mortals Greek men are superior but inferior to gods. Greeks love to tell myths about superior mortals like Arcane: o Weaver and very beautiful. Competition with Athena. o But gods always prevail. Major differences o Gods all powerful and live forever. Thanatoi those who die and athanatoi those who live forever. Similarities o Anthropomorphic religious ideas having human shape. Gods invested in human affairs but dont suffer from them. Domestic despute in the Iliad: o Zeus was flirting with another women. Hera got jealous and used sex to get him back. Here we see that gods can be mortal and immortal. Protagoras Man is the measure of all things. Anthropomorphic mans center and gods reflect them. Lots of detail in the Theogony Why? o Made a good poem. o Impressive to say. Panhellenism o Starts thinking of Greece as a whole. o Like Olympics did. Hesiod took everybodys gods and put them together in one poem. Polytheism o Shows community. o Zeus and the Olympians. Gods not completely separate from humans Mortal + god = hero. Theogony = birth of the gods. Similarities o They reproduce, Have human problems, Power hungry Hesiods succession myth o Handing down power through conflict. o Conflict between father and son. Chaos (empty disorder) Geia (earth) Tartora (underworld) Eros (love) = basic starter kit for the universe Geia created heaven and they had the titans and kronos Ouranos pushed his children back into the earth. Gods are endlessly fertile o Penis thrown into water = Aphrodite born. Second generation = Kronos and Rhea and their children are the Olympians Kronos swallows his children Knows Zeus is going to overthrow him Rhea hides zeus and feeds kronos a boulder. Zeus comes back and makes his father throw up all his siblings 3rd generation Olympians beat titans. Olympians ask Zeus to become leader Zeus has a peaceful rule
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